Microbial degradation of 2-hydroxypyridine usually results in the formation of a blue pigment (nicotine blue). In contrast, the Burkholderia sp. strain MAK1 bacterium utilizes 2-hydroxypyridine without the accumulation of nicotine blue. This scarcely investigated degradation pathway presumably employs 2-hydroxypyridine 5-monooxygenase, an elusive enzyme that has been hypothesized but has yet to be identified or characterized. The isolation of the mutant strain Burkholderia sp. MAK1 ?P5 that is unable to utilize 2-hydroxypyridine has led to the identification of a gene cluster (designated hpd) which is responsible for the degradation of 2-hydroxypyridine. The activity of 2-hydroxypyridine 5-monooxygenase has been assigned to a soluble diiron monooxygenase (SDIMO) encoded by a five-gene cluster (hpdA, hpdB, hpdC, hpdD, and hpdE). A 4.5-kb DNA fragment containing all five genes has been successfully expressed in Burkholderia sp. MAK1 ?P5 cells. We have proved that the recombinant HpdABCDE protein catalyzes the enzymatic turnover of 2-hydroxypyridine to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. Moreover, we have confirmed that emerging 2,5-dihydroxypyridine is a substrate for HpdF, an enzyme similar to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine 5,6-dioxygenases that are involved in the catabolic pathways of nicotine and nicotinic acid. The proteins and genes identified in this study have allowed the identification of a novel degradation pathway of 2-hydroxypyridine. Our results provide a better understanding of the biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in nature. Also, the discovered 2-hydroxypyridine 5-monooxygenase may be an attractive catalyst for the regioselective synthesis of various N-heterocyclic compounds.IMPORTANCE The degradation pathway of 2-hydroxypyridine without the accumulation of a blue pigment is relatively unexplored, as, to our knowledge, no genetic data related to this process have ever been presented. In this paper, we describe genes and enzymes involved in this little-studied catabolic pathway. This work provides new insights into the metabolism of 2-hydroxypyridine in nature. A broad-range substrate specificity of 2-hydroxypyridine 5-monooxygenase, a key enzyme in the degradation, makes this biocatalyst attractive for the regioselective hydroxylation of pyridine derivatives. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology