April 21, 2020  |  

Variation in genome content and predatory phenotypes between Bdellovibrio sp. NC01 isolated from soil and B. bacteriovorus type strain HD100

The range of naturally occurring variation in the ability of Bdellovibrio strains to attack and kill Gram-negative bacteria is not well understood. Defining phenotypic and associated genotypic variation among Bdellovibrio may further our understanding of how this genus impacts microbial communities. In addition, comparisons of the predatory phenotypes of divergent strains may inform the development of Bdellovibrio as biocontrol agents to combat bacterial infections. We isolated Bdellovibrio sp. NC01 from soil and compared its genome and predatory phenotypes to B. bacteriovorus type strain HD100. Based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and average amino acid identity, NC01 belongs to a different species than HD100. Genome-wide comparisons and individual gene analyses indicated that eight NC01 genome regions were likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), further supporting an important role for HGT in Bdellovibrio genome evolution. Within these regions, multiple protein-coding sequences were assigned predicted functions related to transcriptional regulation and transport; however, most were annotated as hypothetical proteins. Compared to HD100, NC01 has a limited prey range and kills E. coli ML35 less efficiently. Whereas HD100 drastically reduces the ML35 population and then maintains low prey population density, NC01 causes a smaller reduction in ML35, after which the prey population recovers, accompanied by a decrease in NC01. In addition, NC01 forms turbid plaques on lawns of E. coli ML35, in contrast to clear plaques formed by HD100. Characterizing variation in interactions between Bdellovibrio and Gram-negative bacteria, such as observed with NC01 and HD100, is valuable for understanding the ecological significance of predatory bacteria and evaluating their effectiveness in clinical applications.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genome Sequence of Streptomyces cavourensis 1AS2a, a Rhizobacterium Isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado Biome.

Streptomyces cavourensis strain 1AS2a, isolated from wheat rhizosphere in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, exhibits strong antimicrobial activities. Its genome comprises 7,600,475?bp with 6,590 open reading frames (ORFs) that reveal 30 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). It provides a genetic basis for further research of the potential of this strain for the production of antimicrobial compounds.Copyright © 2019 Vargas Hoyos et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Heterologous Expression of Ilicicolin H Biosynthetic Gene Cluster and Production of a New Potent Antifungal Reagent, Ilicicolin J.

Ilicicolin H is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent targeting mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 reductase. Unfortunately, ilicicolin H shows reduced activities in vivo. Here, we report our effort on the identification of ilicicolin H biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) by genomic sequencing a producing strain, Neonectria sp. DH2, and its heterologous production in Aspergillus nidulans. In addition, a shunt product with similar antifungal activities, ilicicolin J, was uncovered. This effort would provide a base for future combinatorial biosynthesis of ilicicolin H analogues. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the backbone of ilicicolin H is assembled by a polyketide-nonribosomal peptide synthethase (IliA), and then offloaded with a tetramic acid moiety. Similar to tenellin biosynthesis, the tetramic acid is then converted to pyridone by a putative P450, IliC. The decalin portion is most possibly constructed by a S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent Diels-Alderase (IliD).


April 21, 2020  |  

Infection mechanisms and putative effector repertoire of the mosquito pathogenic oomycete Pythium guiyangense uncovered by genomic analysis.

Pythium guiyangense, an oomycete from a genus of mostly plant pathogens, is an effective biological control agent that has wide potential to manage diverse mosquitoes. However, its mosquito-killing mechanisms are almost unknown. In this study, we observed that P. guiyangense could utilize cuticle penetration and ingestion of mycelia into the digestive system to infect mosquito larvae. To explore pathogenic mechanisms, a high-quality genome sequence with 239 contigs and an N50 contig length of 1,009 kb was generated. The genome assembly is approximately 110 Mb, which is almost twice the size of other sequenced Pythium genomes. Further genome analysis suggests that P. guiyangense may arise from a hybridization of two related but distinct parental species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that P. guiyangense likely evolved from common ancestors shared with plant pathogens. Comparative genome analysis coupled with transcriptome sequencing data suggested that P. guiyangense may employ multiple virulence mechanisms to infect mosquitoes, including secreted proteases and kazal-type protease inhibitors. It also shares intracellular Crinkler (CRN) effectors used by plant pathogenic oomycetes to facilitate the colonization of plant hosts. Our experimental evidence demonstrates that CRN effectors of P. guiyangense can be toxic to insect cells. The infection mechanisms and putative virulence effectors of P. guiyangense uncovered by this study provide the basis to develop improved mosquito control strategies. These data also provide useful knowledge on host adaptation and evolution of the entomopathogenic lifestyle within the oomycete lineage. A deeper understanding of the biology of P. guiyangense effectors might also be useful for management of other important agricultural pests.


April 21, 2020  |  

Intercellular communication is required for trap formation in the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans.

Nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) are a large and diverse group of fungi, which may switch from a saprotrophic to a predatory lifestyle if nematodes are present. Different fungi have developed different trapping devices, ranging from adhesive cells to constricting rings. After trapping, fungal hyphae penetrate the worm, secrete lytic enzymes and form a hyphal network inside the body. We sequenced the genome of Duddingtonia flagrans, a biotechnologically important NTF used to control nematode populations in fields. The 36.64 Mb genome encodes 9,927 putative proteins, among which are more than 638 predicted secreted proteins. Most secreted proteins are lytic enzymes, but more than 200 were classified as small secreted proteins (< 300 amino acids). 117 putative effector proteins were predicted, suggesting interkingdom communication during the colonization. As a first step to analyze the function of such proteins or other phenomena at the molecular level, we developed a transformation system, established the fluorescent proteins GFP and mCherry, adapted an assay to monitor protein secretion, and established gene-deletion protocols using homologous recombination or CRISPR/Cas9. One putative virulence effector protein, PefB, was transcriptionally induced during the interaction. We show that the mature protein is able to be imported into nuclei in Caenorhabditis elegans cells. In addition, we studied trap formation and show that cell-to-cell communication is required for ring closure. The availability of the genome sequence and the establishment of many molecular tools will open new avenues to studying this biotechnologically relevant nematode-trapping fungus.


April 21, 2020  |  

Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Pseudoalteromonas piscicida Strains, DE1-A and DE2-A, with Strong Antibacterial Activity against Vibrio vulnificus.

Highly vesiculated Pseudoalteromonas piscicida strains DE1-A and DE2-A were isolated from seawater and show bactericidal properties toward Vibrio vulnificus and other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of these two P. piscicida strains and identify proteolytic enzymes potentially involved in their antibacterial properties.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genome mining identifies cepacin as a plant-protective metabolite of the biopesticidal bacterium Burkholderia ambifaria.

Beneficial microorganisms are widely used in agriculture for control of plant pathogens, but a lack of efficacy and safety information has limited the exploitation of multiple promising biopesticides. We applied phylogeny-led genome mining, metabolite analyses and biological control assays to define the efficacy of Burkholderia ambifaria, a naturally beneficial bacterium with proven biocontrol properties but potential pathogenic risk. A panel of 64 B.?ambifaria strains demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against priority plant pathogens. Genome sequencing, specialized metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster mining and metabolite analysis revealed an armoury of known and unknown pathways within B.?ambifaria. The biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the production of the metabolite cepacin was identified and directly shown to mediate protection of germinating crops against Pythium damping-off disease. B.?ambifaria maintained biopesticidal protection and overall fitness in the soil after deletion of its third replicon, a non-essential plasmid associated with virulence in Burkholderia?cepacia complex bacteria. Removal of the third replicon reduced B.?ambifaria persistence in a murine respiratory infection model. Here, we show that by using interdisciplinary phylogenomic, metabolomic and functional approaches, the mode of action of natural biological control agents related to pathogens can be systematically established to facilitate their future exploitation.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterization and Complete Genome Analysis of the Carbazomycin B-Producing Strain Streptomyces luteoverticillatus SZJ61.

Members of marine Actinobacteria have been highly regarded as potentially important sources of antimicrobial compounds. Here, we isolated a strain of Actinobacteria, SZJ61, and showed that it inhibits the in vitro growth of fungi pathogenic to plants. This new isolate was identified as Streptomyces luteoverticillatus by morphological, biochemical and genetic analyses. Antifungal compounds were isolated from S. luteoverticillatus strain SZJ61 and characterized as carbazomycin B by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. We then sequenced the genome of the S. luteoverticillatus SZJ61 strain, which consists of only one 7,367,863 bp linear chromosome that has a G+C content of 72.05%. Thirty-five putative biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites, including a variety of bioactive products, were found. Mining of the genome sequence information revealed the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of carbazomycin B. This genomic information is valuable for interpreting the biosynthetic mechanisms of diverse bioactive compounds that have potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genomic and Functional Characterization of the Endophytic Bacillus subtilis 7PJ-16 Strain, a Potential Biocontrol Agent of Mulberry Fruit Sclerotiniose.

Bacillus sp. 7PJ-16, an endophytic bacterium isolated from a healthy mulberry stem and previously identified as Bacillus tequilensis 7PJ-16, exhibits strong antifungal activity and has the capacity to promote plant growth. This strain was studied for its effectiveness as a biocontrol agent to reduce mulberry fruit sclerotiniose in the field and as a growth-promoting agent for mulberry in the greenhouse. In field studies, the cell suspension and supernatant of strain 7PJ-16 exhibited biocontrol efficacy and the lowest disease incidence was reduced down to only 0.80%. In greenhouse experiments, the cell suspension (1.0?×?106 and 1.0?×?105 CFU/mL) and the cell-free supernatant (100-fold and 1000-fold dilution) stimulated mulberry seed germination and promoted mulberry seedling growth. In addition, to accurately identify the 7PJ-16 strain and further explore the mechanisms of its antifungal and growth-promoting properties, the complete genome of this strain was sequenced and annotated. The 7PJ-16 genome is comprised of two circular plasmids and a 4,209,045-bp circular chromosome, containing 4492 protein-coding genes and 116 RNA genes. This strain was ultimately designed as Bacillus subtilis based on core genome sequence analyses using a phylogenomic approach. In this genome, we identified a series of gene clusters that function in the synthesis of non-ribosomal peptides (surfactin, fengycin, bacillibactin, and bacilysin) as well as the ribosome-dependent synthesis of tasA and bacteriocins (subtilin, subtilosin A), which are responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous antimicrobial metabolites. Additionally, several genes with function that promote plant growth, such as indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis, the production of volatile substances, and siderophores synthesis, were also identified. The information described in this study has established a good foundation for understanding the beneficial interactions between endophytes and host plants, and facilitates the further application of B. subtilis 7PJ-16 as an agricultural biofertilizer and biocontrol agent.


April 21, 2020  |  

Characterization of a Novel Insecticidal Protein Cry9Cb1 from Bacillus thuringiensis.

In recent decades, there have been increasing reports of insect resistance in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops. Alternative use of Cry toxins, with high insecticidal activity and different mechanisms of action, may be an important strategy to manage this resistance. Cry9 protein, with high toxicity to the lepidopteran pests and no cross-resistance with commercial Cry1 proteins, is a valuable relevant resource. A novel insecticidal protein, MP1489, subsequently named as Cry9Cb1, with 88% amino acid sequence identity with Cry9Ca1, was identified from Bt strain SP663; it exhibited high insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella, Ostrinia furnacalis, and Chilo suppressalis and no cross-resistance with Cry1Fa in Ostrinia furnacalis. Its minimal active fragments against Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia furnacalis were identified to be 72T-657V and 68D-655A, respectively; food-safety assessment showed no sequence homology with any known allergen and rapid degradation and inactivation by both heat and the gastrointestinal environment. Therefore, Cry9Cb1 is proposed to have a brilliant prospect as an insecticidal protein in agriculture.


April 21, 2020  |  

An efficient gene disruption system for the nematophagous fungus Purpureocillium lavendulum.

The fungus Purpureocillium lavendulum (formally Paecilomyces lilacinus) is a natural enemy of insects and plant-parasitic nematodes, and has been used as an important bio-control agent against agricultural pests all over the world. In order to understand the genetic mechanisms governing its biocontrol efficiency and other biological processes, an effective gene disruption system is needed. Here we report the development of an efficient system which integrates selective markers that differ from Purpureocillium lilacinum, a one-step construction method for gene knockout plasmids, and a ku80 knockout strain for efficient homologous recombination. With this system, we effectively disrupted the transcription factors in the central regulation pathway of sporulation and a serine protease which were contributed to nematode infection, demonstrating this system as an efficient gene disrupting system for further characterization of genes involved in the development and pathogenesis of this fungus. Copyright © 2019 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Evolution of Antibiotic Synthesis Gene Clusters in the Streptomyces globisporus TFH56, Isolated from Tomato Flower.

Streptomyces species are known to produce various bioactive metabolites that can prevent plant diseases. Previously, the Streptomyces strain TFH56 was found to inhibit the gray mold pathogen, Botrytis cinerea, in tomato flower. In this study, the genome sequence of strain TFH56 was acquired using the Pacific Biosciences RS II platform. Three linear sequences (7.67 Mbp in total) were obtained. Based on average nucleotide identity, strain TFH56 was classified as Streptomyces globisporus, which is consistent with the presence of a linear chromosome and linear plasmids. Moreover, as with other examples of S. globisporus, the genome of strain TFH56 included a caryolan-1-ol synthase gene, a conprimycin synthetic gene cluster, and a lidamycin synthetic gene cluster.Copyright © 2019 Cho, Kwak.


April 21, 2020  |  

The complete genome of the antifungal bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain MS82

The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain MS82 isolated from the rhizosphere of a soybean plant is reported and analyzed in relation to its extensive antifungal activity. Broth media used for production of the antifungal extract from strain MS82 against the mushroom pathogen Trichoderma viride were optimized using the routine plate bioassays. Culture extract of strain 82 in the peptone-K2HPO4-MgSO4 medium (PKM; peptone 20 g/L, K2HPO4 1.5 g/L, MgSO4 1.5 g/L and sterilized water) showed the best antifungal activity with an inhibition rate of 88.69thinspacetextpmthinspace3.87% to the fungal pathogen. Control efficacy of the T. viride contamination was investigated in mushroom production compost. The disease severity index of P. ostreatus hyphae infected by T. viride of treatment mixed with MS82 supernatant (38.33thinspacetextpmthinspace5.20%) was lower than that of the compost mixed with non-inoculated broth (97.50thinspacetextpmthinspace2.50%). The multilocus sequence analysis, containing four partial sequences from the gyrB, rpoB, recA and rpoD, suggests that strain MS82 is a Pseudomonas strain. The strain MS82 genome consists of a circular chromosome of 6,207,556 bp that was predicted to encode 5401 proteins and 131 RNA genes. Genome analysis revealed the presence of the gene clusters for biosynthesis of antifungal compounds, such as phenazine, pyocyanin, pyoverdine, volatile HCN and cyclic lipopeptides (arthrofactin). Genome analysis presented in the report will provide insights into development of biological control for fungal contamination in mushroom cultivation.


Talk with an expert

If you have a question, need to check the status of an order, or are interested in purchasing an instrument, we're here to help.