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Sunday, July 7, 2019

ProbAlign: a re-alignment method for long sequencing reads

The incorrect alignments are a severe problem in variant calling, and remain as a challenge computational issue in Bioinformatics field. Although there have been some methods utilizing the re-alignment approach to tackle the misalignments, a standalone re-alignment tool for long sequencing reads is lacking. Hence, we present a standalone tool to correct the misalignments, called ProbAlign. It can be integrated into the pipelines of not only variant calling but also other genomic applications. We demonstrate the use of re-alignment in two diverse and important genomics fields: variant calling and viral quasispecies reconstruction. First, variant calling results in the Pacific Biosciences…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Harvest suite for rapid core-genome alignment and visualization of thousands of intraspecific microbial genomes.

Whole-genome sequences are now available for many microbial species and clades, however, existing whole-genome alignment methods are limited in their ability to perform sequence comparisons of multiple sequences simultaneously. Here we present the Harvest suite of core-genome alignment and visualization tools for the rapid and simultaneous analysis of thousands of intraspecific microbial strains. Harvest includes Parsnp, a fast core-genome multi-aligner, and Gingr, a dynamic visual platform. Together they provide interactive core-genome alignments, variant calls, recombination detection, and phylogenetic trees. Using simulated and real data we demonstrate that our approach exhibits unrivaled speed while maintaining the accuracy of existing methods. The…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Mapping single molecule sequencing reads using basic local alignment with successive refinement (BLASR): application and theory.

Recent methods have been developed to perform high-throughput sequencing of DNA by Single Molecule Sequencing (SMS). While Next-Generation sequencing methods may produce reads up to several hundred bases long, SMS sequencing produces reads up to tens of kilobases long. Existing alignment methods are either too inefficient for high-throughput datasets, or not sensitive enough to align SMS reads, which have a higher error rate than Next-Generation sequencing.We describe the method BLASR (Basic Local Alignment with Successive Refinement) for mapping Single Molecule Sequencing (SMS) reads that are thousands of bases long, with divergence between the read and genome dominated by insertion and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Variant tolerant read mapping using min-hashing

DNA read mapping is a ubiquitous task in bioinformatics, and many tools have been developed to solve the read mapping problem. However, there are two trends that are changing the landscape of readmapping: First, new sequencing technologies provide very long reads with high error rates (up to 15%). Second, many genetic variants in the population are known, so the reference genome is not considered as a single string over ACGT, but as a complex object containing these variants. Most existing read mappers do not handle these new circumstances appropriately.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Meta-aligner: long-read alignment based on genome statistics.

Current development of sequencing technologies is towards generating longer and noisier reads. Evidently, accurate alignment of these reads play an important role in any downstream analysis. Similarly, reducing the overall cost of sequencing is related to the time consumption of the aligner. The tradeoff between accuracy and speed is the main challenge in designing long read aligners.We propose Meta-aligner which aligns long and very long reads to the reference genome very efficiently and accurately. Meta-aligner incorporates available short/long aligners as subcomponents and uses statistics from the reference genome to increase the performance. Meta-aligner estimates statistics from reads and the reference…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

SureMap: Versatile, error tolerant, and high sensitive read mapper

SureMap is a versatile, error tolerant and high sensitive read mapper which is able to map “difficult” reads, those requiring many edit operations to be mapped to the reference genome, with acceptable time complexity. Mapping real datasets reveal that many variants unidentifiable by other mappers can be called using Suremap. Moreover, SureMap has a very good running time and accuracy in aligning very long and noisy reads like PacBio and Nanopore against a reference genome.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

HISEA: HIerarchical SEed Aligner for PacBio data.

The next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have been around for over a decade. Many of their fundamental applications rely on the ability to compute good genome assemblies. As the technology evolves, the assembly algorithms and tools have to continuously adjust and improve. The currently dominant technology of Illumina produces reads that are too short to bridge many repeats, setting limits on what can be successfully assembled. The emerging SMRT (Single Molecule, Real-Time) sequencing technique from Pacific Biosciences produces uniform coverage and long reads of length up to sixty thousand base pairs, enabling significantly better genome assemblies. However, SMRT reads are…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

COSINE: non-seeding method for mapping long noisy sequences.

Third generation sequencing (TGS) are highly promising technologies but the long and noisy reads from TGS are difficult to align using existing algorithms. Here, we present COSINE, a conceptually new method designed specifically for aligning long reads contaminated by a high level of errors. COSINE computes the context similarity of two stretches of nucleobases given the similarity over distributions of their short k-mers (k = 3-4) along the sequences. The results on simulated and real data show that COSINE achieves high sensitivity and specificity under a wide range of read accuracies. When the error rate is high, COSINE can offer…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

ALP & FALP: C++ libraries for pairwise local alignment E-values.

Pairwise local alignment is an indispensable tool for molecular biologists. In real time (i.e. in about 1 s), ALP (Ascending Ladder Program) calculates the E-values for protein-protein or DNA-DNA local alignments of random sequences, for arbitrary substitution score matrix, gap costs and letter abundances; and FALP (Frameshift Ascending Ladder Program) performs a similar task, although more slowly, for frameshifting DNA-protein alignments.To permit other C++ programmers to implement the computational efficiencies in ALP and FALP directly within their own programs, C++ source codes are available in the public domain at http://go.usa.gov/3GTSW under ‘ALP’ and ‘FALP’, along with the standalone programs ALP…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

rHAT: fast alignment of noisy long reads with regional hashing.

Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing has been widely applied in cutting-edge genomic studies. However, it is still an expensive task to align the noisy long SMRT reads to reference genome by state-of-the-art aligners, which is becoming a bot-tleneck in applications with SMRT sequencing. Novel approach is on demand for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of SMRT read alignment.We propose Regional Hashing-based Alignment Tool (rHAT), a seed-and-extension-based read alignment approach specifically designed for noisy long reads. rHAT indexes reference genome by regional hash table (RHT), a hash table-based index which describes the short tokens within local windows of reference genome. In…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Privacy-preserving read mapping using locality sensitive hashing and secure kmer voting

The recent explosion in the amount of available genome sequencing data imposes high computational demands on the tools designed to analyze it. Low-cost cloud computing has the potential to alleviate this burden. However, moving personal genome data analysis to the cloud raises serious privacy concerns. Read alignment is a critical and computationally intensive first step of most genomic data analysis pipelines. While significant effort has been dedicated to optimize the sensitivity and runtime efficiency of this step, few approaches have addressed outsourcing this computation securely to an untrusted party. The few secure solutions that have been proposed either do not…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

STR-realigner: a realignment method for short tandem repeat regions.

In the estimation of repeat numbers in a short tandem repeat (STR) region from high-throughput sequencing data, two types of strategies are mainly taken: a strategy based on counting repeat patterns included in sequence reads spanning the region and a strategy based on estimating the difference between the actual insert size and the insert size inferred from paired-end reads. The quality of sequence alignment is crucial, especially in the former approaches although usual alignment methods have difficulty in STR regions due to insertions and deletions caused by the variations of repeat numbers.We proposed a new dynamic programming based realignment method…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Improve homology search sensitivity of PacBio data by correcting frameshifts.

Single-molecule, real-time sequencing (SMRT) developed by Pacific BioSciences produces longer reads than secondary generation sequencing technologies such as Illumina. The long read length enables PacBio sequencing to close gaps in genome assembly, reveal structural variations, and identify gene isoforms with higher accuracy in transcriptomic sequencing. However, PacBio data has high sequencing error rate and most of the errors are insertion or deletion errors. During alignment-based homology search, insertion or deletion errors in genes will cause frameshifts and may only lead to marginal alignment scores and short alignments. As a result, it is hard to distinguish true alignments from random alignments…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

SRinversion: a tool for detecting short inversions by splitting and re-aligning poorly mapped and unmapped sequencing reads.

Rapid development in sequencing technologies has dramatically improved our ability to detect genetic variants in human genome. However, current methods have variable sensitivities in detecting different types of genetic variants. One type of such genetic variants that is especially hard to detect is inversions. Analysis of public databases showed that few short inversions have been reported so far. Unlike reads that contain small insertions or deletions, which will be considered through gap alignment, reads carrying short inversions often have poor mapping quality or are unmapped, thus are often not further considered. As a result, the majority of short inversions might…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

ReMILO: reference assisted misassembly detection algorithm using short and long reads.

Contigs assembled from the second generation sequencing short reads may contain misassemblies, and thus complicate downstream analysis or even lead to incorrect analysis results. Fortunately, with more and more sequenced species available, it becomes possible to use the reference genome of a closely related species to detect misassemblies. In addition, long reads of the third generation sequencing technology have been more and more widely used, and can also help detect misassemblies.Here, we introduce ReMILO, a reference assisted misassembly detection algorithm that uses both short reads and PacBio SMRT long reads. ReMILO aligns the initial short reads to both the contigs…

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