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Friday, July 19, 2019

New insights into dissemination and variation of the health care-associated pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii from genomic analysis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is a globally important nosocomial pathogen characterized by an increasing incidence of multidrug resistance. Routes of dissemination and gene flow among health care facilities are poorly resolved and are important for understanding the epidemiology of A. baumannii, minimizing disease transmission, and improving patient outcomes. We used whole-genome sequencing to assess diversity and genome dynamics in 49 isolates from one United States hospital system during one year from 2007 to 2008. Core single-nucleotide-variant-based phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple founder strains and multiple independent strains recovered from the same patient yet was insufficient to fully resolve strain relationships, where gene content…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Initial assessment of the molecular epidemiology of blaNDM-1 in Colombia.

We report complete genome sequences of fourblaNDM-1-harboring Gram-negative multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates from Colombia. TheblaNDM-1genes were located 193Kb-Inc FIA, 178Kb-Inc A/C2 and 47Kb (unknown Inc type) plasmids. MLST revealed that isolates belong to ST10 (Escherichia coli), ST392 (Klebsiella pneumoniae), and ST322 and ST464 (Acinetobacter baumanniiandA. nosocomialis, respectively). Our analysis identified that the Inc A/C2 plasmid inE. colicontained a novel complex transposon (Tn125and Tn5393with 3 copies ofblaNDM-1) and a recombination “hotspot” for the acquisition of new resistance determinants. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Resources for genetic and genomic analysis of emerging pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen notorious for causing serious nosocomial infections that resist antibiotic therapy. Research to identify factors responsible for the pathogen’s success has been limited by the resources available for genome-scale experimental studies. This report describes the development of several such resources for A. baumannii strain AB5075, a recently characterized wound isolate that is multidrug resistant and displays robust virulence in animal models. We report the completion and annotation of the genome sequence, the construction of a comprehensive ordered transposon mutant library, the extension of high-coverage transposon mutant pool sequencing (Tn-seq) to the strain, and the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A multidrug resistance plasmid contains the molecular switch for type VI secretion in Acinetobacter baumannii.

Infections with Acinetobacter baumannii, one of the most troublesome and least studied multidrug-resistant superbugs, are increasing at alarming rates. A. baumannii encodes a type VI secretion system (T6SS), an antibacterial apparatus of Gram-negative bacteria used to kill competitors. Expression of the T6SS varies among different strains of A. baumannii, for which the regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that several multidrug-resistant strains of A. baumannii harbor a large, self-transmissible resistance plasmid that carries the negative regulators for T6SS. T6SS activity is silenced in plasmid-containing, antibiotic-resistant cells, while part of the population undergoes frequent plasmid loss and activation of the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii strain B8300, which displays high twitching motility.

Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen causing health care-associated infections. In this study, we determined the genome of a twitching-positive clinical strain, B8300, isolated from a hospital in southern India. De novo assembly of PacBio long-read sequencing data generated the B8300 genome that consists of a chromosome of 3.82 Mbp and a plasmid of 25.15 kbp. Copyright © 2015 Vijaykumar et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii strain B8342, a motility-positive clinical isolate.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging Gram-negative pathogen responsible for health care-associated infections. In this study, we determined the genome of a motility-positive clinical strain, B8342, isolated from a hospital in southern India. The B8342 genome, which is 3.94 Mbp, was generated by de novo assembly of PacBio long-read sequencing data. Copyright © 2015 Vijaykumar et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains isolated from Southern India

Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen causing infections worldwide. In this study, we determined the genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clinical strains isolated from a hospital in southern India. Genome analyses indicate that both the strains harbor numerous horizontally transferred genetic elements and antibiotic resistance cassettes. Copyright © 2015 Balaji et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in a university hospital in Nepal reveals the emergence of a novel epidemic clonal lineage.

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has become a serious medical problem worldwide. To clarify the genetic and epidemiological properties of MDR A. baumannii strains isolated from a medical setting in Nepal, 246 Acinetobacter spp. isolates obtained from different patients were screened for MDR A. baumannii by antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing. Whole genomes of the MDR A. baumannii isolates were sequenced by MiSeq™ (Illumina), and the complete genome of one isolate (IOMTU433) was sequenced by PacBio RS II. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from single nucleotide polymorphism concatemers. Multilocus sequence types were deduced and drug resistance genes were identified. Of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Next-generation sequencing and comparative analysis of sequential outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii at a large academic burn center.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis has emerged as a promising molecular epidemiological method for investigating health care-associated outbreaks. Here, we used NGS to investigate a 3-year outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) at a large academic burn center. A reference genome from the index case was generated using de novo assembly of PacBio reads. Forty-six MDRAB isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequenced using an Illumina platform. After mapping to the index case reference genome, four samples were excluded due to low coverage, leaving 42 samples for further analysis. Multilocus sequence types (MLST) and the presence of acquired…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Dissemination of 16S rRNA methylase ArmA-producing acinetobacter baumannii and emergence of OXA-72 carbapenemase coproducers in Japan.

Forty-nine clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were obtained from 12 hospitals in 7 prefectures throughout Japan. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed the clonal spread of A. baumannii sequence type 208 (ST208) and ST455 isolates harboring the armA gene and ST512 harboring the armA and blaOXA-72 genes. These findings show that A. baumannii isolates harboring armA are disseminated throughout Japan, and this is the first report to show that A. baumannii strains harboring blaOXA-72 and armA are emerging in hospitals in Japan.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Assessment of insertion sequence mobilization as an adaptive response to oxidative stress in Acinetobacter baumannii using IS-Seq.

Insertion sequence (IS) elements are found throughout bacterial genomes and contribute to genome variation by interrupting genes or altering gene expression. Few of the more than thirty IS elements described in Acinetobacter baumannii have been characterized for transposition activity or expression effects. A targeted sequencing method, IS-seq, was developed to efficiently map the locations of new insertion events in A. baumannii genomes and was used to identify novel IS sites following growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress. Serial subculture in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of hydrogen peroxide led to rapid selection of cells carrying…

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