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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Rapid evolution of citrate utilization by Escherichia coli by direct selection requires citT and dctA.

The isolation of aerobic citrate-utilizing Escherichia coli (Cit(+)) in long-term evolution experiments (LTEE) has been termed a rare, innovative, presumptive speciation event. We hypothesized that direct selection would rapidly yield the same class of E. coli Cit(+) mutants and follow the same genetic trajectory: potentiation, actualization, and refinement. This hypothesis was tested with wild-type E. coli strain B and with K-12 and three K-12 derivatives: an E. coli ?rpoS::kan mutant (impaired for stationary-phase survival), an E. coli ?citT::kan mutant (deleted for the anaerobic citrate/succinate antiporter), and an E. coli ?dctA::kan mutant (deleted for the aerobic succinate transporter). E. coli underwent…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Cer-cqu gene cluster determines three key players in a ß-diketone synthase polyketide pathway synthesizing aliphatics in epicuticular waxes.

Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing identification of mutants in their synthesis or transport. The present study discloses three such Eceriferum (cer) genes in barley – Cer-c, Cer-q and Cer-u – known to be tightly linked and functioning in a biochemical pathway forming dominating amounts of ß-diketone and hydroxy-ß-diketones plus some esterified alkan-2-ols. These aliphatics are present in many Triticeae as well as dicotyledons…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Direct repeat-mediated DNA deletion of the mating type MAT1-2 genes results in unidirectional mating type switching in Sclerotinia trifoliorum.

The necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia trifoliorum exhibits ascospore dimorphism and unidirectional mating type switching – self-fertile strains derived from large ascospores produce both self-fertile (large-spores) and self-sterile (small-spores) offsprings in a 4:4 ratio. The present study, comparing DNA sequences at MAT locus of both self-fertile and self-sterile strains, found four mating type genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-1-5, MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-2-4) in the self-fertile strain. However, a 2891-bp region including the entire MAT1-2-1 and MAT1-2-4 genes had been completely deleted from the MAT locus in the self-sterile strain. Meanwhile, two copies of a 146-bp direct repeat motif flanking the deleted region were found…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Structural and functional analysis of the finished genome of the recently isolated toxic Anabaena sp. WA102.

Very few closed genomes of the cyanobacteria that commonly produce toxic blooms in lakes and reservoirs are available, limiting our understanding of the properties of these organisms. A new anatoxin-a-producing member of the Nostocaceae, Anabaena sp. WA102, was isolated from a freshwater lake in Washington State, USA, in 2013 and maintained in non-axenic culture.The Anabaena sp. WA102 5.7 Mbp genome assembly has been closed with long-read, single-molecule sequencing and separately a draft genome assembly has been produced with short-read sequencing technology. The closed and draft genome assemblies are compared, showing a correlation between long repeats in the genome and the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence of Bibersteinia trehalosi strain Y31 isolated from the pneumonic lung of a bighorn sheep.

Here, we report the genome sequence for Bibersteinia trehalosi strain Y31, isolated from the lungs of a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that had succumbed to pneumonia, which exhibits proximity-dependent inhibition (PDI) of Mannheimia haemolytica The sequence will be used to understand the mechanism of PDI for these organisms. Copyright © 2016 Kugadas et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Structural basis for recombinatorial permissiveness in the generation of Anaplasma marginale Msp2 antigenic variants.

Sequential expression of outer membrane protein antigenic variants is an evolutionarily convergent mechanism used by bacterial pathogens to escape host immune clearance and establish persistent infection. Variants must be sufficiently structurally distinct to escape existing immune effectors yet retain core structural elements required for localization and function within the outer membrane. We examined this balance using Anaplasma marginale, which generates antigenic variants in the outer membrane protein Msp2 using gene conversion. The overwhelming majority of Msp2 variants expressed during long-term persistent infection are mosaics, derived by recombination of oligonucleotide segments from multiple alleles to form unique hypervariable regions (HVR). As…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Cyanobacterium sp. strain HL-69, isolated from a benthic microbial mat from a magnesium sulfate-dominated hypersaline lake.

The complete genome sequence ofCyanobacteriumsp. strain HL-69 consists of 3,155,247 bp and contains 2,897 predicted genes comprising a chromosome and two plasmids. The genome is consistent with a halophilic nondiazotrophic phototrophic lifestyle, and this organism is able to synthesize most B vitamins and produces several secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2018 Mobberley et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky sequence type 198 strain, PU131, isolated from a human patient in Washington State.

Strains of the ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cipr) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky sequence type 198 (ST198) have rapidly and extensively disseminated globally to become a major food safety and public health concern. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a CiprS. Kentucky ST198 strain, PU131, isolated from a human patient in Washington State (USA).

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence resources for the wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) and the barley stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei)

Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici causes devastating stripe (yellow) rust on wheat and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei causes stripe rust on barley. Several P. striiformis f. sp. tritici genomes are available, but no P. striiformis f. sp. hordei genome is available. More genomes of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei are needed to understand the genome evolution and molecular mechanisms of their pathogenicity. We sequenced P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolate 93-210 and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei isolate 93TX-2, using PacBio and Illumina technologies and RNA sequencing. Their genomic sequences were assembled to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomics and biochemistry investigation on the metabolic pathway of milled wood and alkali lignin-derived aromatic metabolites of Comamonas serinivorans SP-35.

The efficient depolymerization and utilization of lignin are one of the most important goals for the renewable use of lignocelluloses. The degradation and complete mineralization of lignin by bacteria represent a key step for carbon recycling in land ecosystems as well. However, many aspects of this process remain unclear, for example, the complex network of metabolic pathways involved in the degradation of lignin and the catabolic pathway of intermediate aromatic metabolites. To address these subjects, we characterized the deconstruction and mineralization of lignin with milled wood lignin (MWL, the most representative molecule of lignin in its native state) and alkali…

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