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Friday, February 26, 2021

Genome sequencing of microbial genomes using Single Molecule Real-time sequencing (SMRT) technology.

In the last year, high-throughput sequencing technologies have progressed from proof-of-concept to production quality. Although each technology is able to produce vast quantities of sequence information, in every case the underlying chemistry limits reads to very short lengths. We present a examining de novo assembly comparison with bacterial genome assembly varying genome size (from 3.1Mb to 7.6Mb) and different G+C contents (from 43% to 71%), respectively. We analyzed Solexa reads, 454 reads and Pacbio RS reads from Streptomyces sp. (Genome size, 7.6 Mb; G+C content, 71%), Psychrobacter sp. (Genome size, 3.5 Mb; G+C content, 43%), Salinibacterium sp. (Genome size, 3.1…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Genome sequencing of endosymbiotic bacterial Streptomyces sp. from Antartic lichen using Single Molecule Real-time Sequencing (SMRT) technology.

Along with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, it has become possible to sequence a microbial genome very quickly with high coverage. Recently, PacificBioscience developed single molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT) technology, 3rd generation sequencing platform, which provide much longer (average read length: 1.5Kb) reads without PCR amplification. We did de novo sequencing of Streptomyces sp. using Illumina GAIIx, Roche 454 and PacBio RS system and compared the data. The endosymbiotic bacteria Streptomyces sp. PAMC 26508 was isolated from Antarctic lichen Psoroma sp. that grows attached rocks on Barton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica (62, 13’S, 58, 47’W). With 4…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

An interactive workflow for the analysis of contigs from the metagenomic shotgun assembly of SMRT Sequencing data.

The data throughput of next-generation sequencing allows whole microbial communities to be analyzed using a shotgun sequencing approach. Because a key task in taking advantage of these data is the ability to cluster reads that belong to the same member in a community, single-molecule long reads of up to 30 kb from SMRT Sequencing provide a unique capability in identifying those relationships and pave the way towards finished assemblies of community members. Long reads become even more valuable as samples get more complex with lower intra-species variation, a larger number of closely related species, or high intra-species variation. Here we…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

A workflow for the analysis of contigs from the metagenomic shotgun assembly of SMRT Sequencing data

The throughput of SMRT Sequencing and long reads allows microbial communities to be analyzed using a shotgun sequencing approach. Key to leveraging this data is the ability to cluster sequences belonging to the same member of a community. Long reads of up to 40 kb provide a unique capability in identifying those relationships, and pave the way towards finished assemblies of community members. Long reads are highly valuable when samples are more complex and containing lower intra-species variation, such as a larger number of closely related species, or high intra-species variation. Here, we present a collection of tools tailored for…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Complete microbial genomes, epigenomes, and transcriptomes using long-read PacBio Sequencing.

For comprehensive metabolic reconstructions and a resulting understanding of the pathways leading to natural products, it is desirable to obtain complete information about the genetic blueprint of the organisms used. Traditional Sanger and next-generation, short-read sequencing technologies have shortcomings with respect to read lengths and DNA-sequence context bias, leading to fragmented and incomplete genome information. The development of long-read, single molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing from Pacific Biosciences, with >10,000 bp average read lengths and a lack of sequence context bias, now allows for the generation of complete genomes in a fully automated workflow. In addition to the genome sequence,…

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Saturday, February 20, 2021

Case Study: Sequencing an historic bacterial collection for the future

The UK’s National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC) is a unique collection of more than 5,000 expertly preserved and authenticated bacterial cultures, many of historical significance. Founded in 1920, NCTC is the longest established collection of its type anywhere in the world, with a history of its own that has reflected — and contributed to — the evolution of microbiology for more than 100 years.

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Saturday, February 20, 2021

Infographic: A brief history of microbiology

Our understanding of microbiology has evolved enormously over the last 150 years. Few institutions have witnessed our collective progress more closely than the National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC). In fact, the collection itself is a record of the many milestones microbiologists have crossed, building on the discoveries of those who came before. To date, 60% of NCTC’s historic collection now has a closed, finished reference genome, thanks to PacBio Single Molecule, Real- Time (SMRT) Sequencing. We are excited to be their partner in crossing this latest milestone on their quest to improve human and animal health by understanding the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Biochemical characterization of a novel cold-adapted agarotetraose-producing a-agarase, AgaWS5, from Catenovulum sediminis WS1-A.

Although many ß-agarases that hydrolyze the ß-1,4 linkages of agarose have been biochemically characterized, only three a-agarases that hydrolyze the a-1,3 linkages are reported to date. In this study, a new a-agarase, AgaWS5, from Catenovulum sediminis WS1-A, a new agar-degrading marine bacterium, was biochemically characterized. AgaWS5 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 96 family. AgaWS5 consists of 1295 amino acids (140 kDa) and has the 65% identity to an a-agarase, AgaA33, obtained from an agar-degrading bacterium Thalassomonas agarivorans JAMB-A33. AgaWS5 showed the maximum activity at a pH and temperature of 8 and 40 °C, respectively. AgaWS5 showed a cold-tolerance, and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence of Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13, a silver nanoparticles synthesizing bacterium isolated from Arctic Ocean sediments

Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13, a silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesizing bacterium, was isolated from Arctic Ocean sediment. Here we describe the complete genome of Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13. The complete genome contains 4,040,012?bp with 66.66?mol%?G?+?C content, including one circular chromosome of 3,231,929?bp (67.45?mol%?G?+?C content), and eight plasmids with length ranging from 24,536?bp to 199,685?bp. The genome contains 3835 protein-coding genes (CDSs), 49 tRNA genes, as well as 3 rRNA operons as 16S-23S-5S rRNA. Based on the gene annotation and Swiss-Prot analysis, a total of 15 genes belonging to 11 kinds, including silver exporting P-type ATPase (SilP), alkaline phosphatase, nitroreductase, thioredoxin reductase, NADPH dehydrogenase…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Antibiotic production is organized by a division of labour in Streptomyces

One of the hallmark behaviors of social groups is division of labour, where different group members become specialized to carry out complementary tasks. By dividing labour, cooperative groups of individuals increase their efficiency, thereby raising group fitness even if these specialized behaviors reduce the fitness of individual group members. Here we provide evidence that antibiotic production in colonies of the multicellular bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor is coordinated by a division of labour. We show that S. coelicolor colonies are genetically heterogeneous due to massive amplifications and deletions to the chromosome. Cells with gross chromosomal changes produce an increased diversity of secondary…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Soil Probiotic Utilizes Plant and Pollinator Transport for Territorial Expansion

Microbe-plant interactions are linked with the core microbiota, and both the plant and the microbial partners depend on one other to thrive in nature. However, why and how the below-ground core microbiota become established aboveground is poorly understood. We tracked the movement of a probiotic Streptomyces endophyte throughout a managed strawberry ecosystem. Probiotics in the rhizosphere and anthosphere were genetically identical, yet these niches were segregated in space and time. The probiotic in the rhizosphere moved upward via the vascular bundle, relocated to aboveground plant parts, and protected against Botrytis cinerea. It also moved from flowers to roots, and among…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Full-length mRNA sequencing and gene expression profiling reveal broad involvement of natural antisense transcript gene pairs in pepper development and response to stresses.

Pepper is an important vegetable with great economic value and unique biological features. In the past few years, significant development has been made towards understanding the huge complex pepper genome; however, pepper functional genomics has not been well studied. To better understand the pepper gene structure and pepper gene regulation, we conducted full-length mRNA sequencing by PacBio sequencing and obtained 57862 high-quality full-length mRNA sequences derived from 18362 previously annotated and 5769 newly detected genes. New gene models were built that combined the full-length mRNA sequences and corrected approximately 500 fragmented gene models from previous annotations. Based on the full-length…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Investigating the role of exudates in recruiting Streptomyces bacteria to the Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome

Arabidopsis thaliana has a diverse but consistent root microbiome, recruited in part by the release of fixed carbon in root exudates. Here we focussed on the recruitment of Streptomyces bacteria, which are well established plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and which have been proposed to be recruited to A. thaliana roots by the release of salicylic acid. We generated high quality genome sequences for eight Streptomyces endophyte strains and showed that although some strains do enhance plant growth, they are not attracted to, and do not feed on, salicyclic acid. We used 13CO2 DNA-stable isotope probing to determine which bacteria are fed by…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain SGAir0924, an Actinobacterium Isolated from Outdoor Air in Singapore.

Streptomyces sp. strain SGAir0924 was isolated from outdoor air collected in Singapore. Its genome was assembled using long reads generated by single-molecule real-time sequencing. The final assembly had one chromosome of 7.65?Mb and three plasmids with an average length of 142 kb. The genome contained 6,825 protein-coding genes, 68 tRNAs, and 18 rRNAs.Copyright © 2019 Gupta et al.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain RKND-216, an Antibiotic Producer Isolated from Marine Sediment in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

Streptomyces sp. strain RKND-216 was isolated from marine sediment collected in Prince Edward Island, Canada, and produces a putatively novel bioactive natural product with antitubercular activity. The genome assembly consists of two contigs covering 5.61?Mb. Genome annotation identified 4,618 predicted protein-coding sequences and 19 predicted natural product biosynthetic gene clusters.Copyright © 2019 Liang et al.

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