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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus mutans Strain LAB761, Which Harbors Several Bacteriocin Loci, Isolated from a Caries-Active Child in Canada.

Streptococcus mutans LAB761 has been isolated from dental plaque collected from a child with severe caries. We report here the complete genome sequence of S. mutans strain LAB761, which has a chromosome of 2.0 Mb. The genome sequence reported herein contains several loci encoding double-glycine-motif peptides and lantibiotic and nonlantibiotic bacteriocins.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A Controlled Human Infection Model of Group A Streptococcus Pharyngitis: Which Strain and Why?

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major cause of global infection-related morbidity and mortality. A modern controlled human infection model (CHIM) of GAS pharyngitis can accelerate vaccine development and pathogenesis research. A robust rationale for strain selection is central to meeting ethical, scientific, and regulatory requirements. Multifaceted characterization studies were done to compare a preferred candidate emm75 (M75) GAS strain to three other strains: an alternative candidate emm12 (M12) strain, an M1 strain used in 1970s pharyngitis CHIM studies (SS-496), and a representative (5448) of the globally disseminated M1T1 clone. A range of approaches were used to explore strain growth,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Human contamination in bacterial genomes has created thousands of spurious proteins.

Contaminant sequences that appear in published genomes can cause numerous problems for downstream analyses, particularly for evolutionary studies and metagenomics projects. Our large-scale scan of complete and draft bacterial and archaeal genomes in the NCBI RefSeq database reveals that 2250 genomes are contaminated by human sequence. The contaminant sequences derive primarily from high-copy human repeat regions, which themselves are not adequately represented in the current human reference genome, GRCh38. The absence of the sequences from the human assembly offers a likely explanation for their presence in bacterial assemblies. In some cases, the contaminating contigs have been erroneously annotated as containing…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Streptococcus periodonticum sp. nov., Isolated from Human Subgingival Dental Plaque of Periodontitis Lesion.

A novel facultative anaerobic and Gram-stain-positive coccus, designated strain ChDC F135T, was isolated from human subgingival dental plaque of periodontitis lesion and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomic analysis. The 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence of strain ChDC F135T was closest to that of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T (98.2%), followed by Streptococcus intermedia SK54T (97.0%), Streptococcus constellatus NCTC11325T (96.0%), and Streptococcus anginosus NCTC 10713T (95.7%). In contrast, phylogenetic analysis based on the superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) and the RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) showed that the nucleotide sequence similarities of strain ChDC F135T were highly similar to the corresponding genes of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Streptococcus gwangjuense sp. nov., Isolated from Human Pericoronitis.

A novel facultative anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative coccus, designated strain ChDC B345T, was isolated from human pericoronitis lesion and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomic analysis. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Streptococcus. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain ChDC B345T was most closely related to those of  Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T (99.5%) and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae ATCC BAA-960T (99.5%). Complete genome of strain ChDC B345T was 1,972,471 bp in length and the G?+?C content was 40.2 mol%. Average nucleotide identity values between strain ChDC B345T and S. pseudopneumoniae ATCC BAA-960T or S. mitis NCTC 12261T were…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Conventional culture methods with commercially available media unveil the presence of novel culturable bacteria.

Recent metagenomic analysis has revealed that our gut microbiota plays an important role in not only the maintenance of our health but also various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. However, most intestinal bacteria are considered ‘unculturable’ bacteria, and their functions remain unknown. Although culture-independent genomic approaches have enabled us to gain insight into their potential roles, culture-based approaches are still required to understand their characteristic features and phenotypes. To date, various culturing methods have been attempted to obtain these ‘unculturable’ bacteria, but most such methods require advanced techniques. Here, we have tried to isolate possible…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of the Wolbachia wAlbB Endosymbiont of Aedes albopictus.

Wolbachia, an alpha-proteobacterium closely related to Rickettsia, is a maternally transmitted, intracellular symbiont of arthropods and nematodes. Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are naturally infected with Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB. Cell line Aa23 established from Ae. albopictus embryos retains only wAlbB and is a key model to study host-endosymbiont interactions. We have assembled the complete circular genome of wAlbB from the Aa23 cell line using long-read PacBio sequencing at 500× median coverage. The assembled circular chromosome is 1.48 megabases in size, an increase of more than 300 kb over the published draft wAlbB genome. The annotation of the genome identified 1,205…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft genome sequence of Streptococcus sp. strain NM isolated from head and neck cancer patients

Streptococcus sp. strain NM belonging to Firmicutes was isolated from head and neck cancer patients. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain NM with a size of approximately 1.90 Mbp and a mean G+C content of 39.3%. The draft genome included 1,845 coding sequences, and 12 ribosomal RNA and 58 transfer RNA genes. In the draft genome, genes involved in the antimicrobial resistance, hemolysis and defense system have been identified.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Precise therapeutic gene correction by a simple nuclease-induced double-stranded break.

Current programmable nuclease-based methods (for example, CRISPR-Cas9) for the precise correction of a disease-causing genetic mutation harness the homology-directed repair pathway. However, this repair process requires the co-delivery of an exogenous DNA donor to recode the sequence and can be inefficient in many cell types. Here we show that disease-causing frameshift mutations that result from microduplications can be efficiently reverted to the wild-type sequence simply by generating a DNA double-stranded break near the centre of the duplication. We demonstrate this in patient-derived cell lines for two diseases: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G (LGMD2G)1 and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 (HPS1)2. Clonal…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactic Acid Bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici Strain ATCC 8042, an Autolytic Anti-bacterial Peptidoglycan Hydrolase Producer

Pediococcus acidilactici is a probiotic bacterium that is industrially utilized in the food industry and antibiotics development. Here, we determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042. The genome was sequenced by the PacBio RSII to generate a single contig consisting of circular chromosome sequence. Illumina MiniSeq sequencing platform and Sanger sequencing method were additionally utilized to correct errors resulting from the long-read sequencing platform. The sequence consists of 2,009,598 bp with a G + C content of 42.1% and contains 1,865 protein-coding sequences. Based on the sequence information, we could confirm and predict the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Investigating the bacterial microbiota of traditional fermented dairy products using propidium monoazide with single-molecule real-time sequencing.

Traditional fermented dairy foods have been the major components of the Mongolian diet for millennia. In this study, we used propidium monoazide (PMA; binds to DNA of nonviable cells so that only viable cells are enumerated) and single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT) technology to investigate the total and viable bacterial compositions of 19 traditional fermented dairy foods, including koumiss from Inner Mongolia (KIM), koumiss from Mongolia (KM), and fermented cow milk from Mongolia (CM); sample groups treated with PMA were designated PKIM, PKM, and PCM. Full-length 16S rRNA sequencing identified 195 bacterial species in 121 genera and 13 phyla in PMA-treated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genomic investigation of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from Gambian women and newborns following an oral dose of intra-partum azithromycin.

Oral azithromycin given during labour reduces carriage of bacteria responsible for neonatal sepsis, including Staphylococcus aureus. However, there is concern that this may promote drug resistance.Here, we combine genomic and epidemiological data on S. aureus isolated from mothers and babies in a randomized intra-partum azithromycin trial (PregnAnZI) to describe bacterial population dynamics and resistance mechanisms.Participants from both arms of the trial, who carried S. aureus in day 3 and day 28 samples post-intervention, were included. Sixty-six S. aureus isolates (from 7 mothers and 10 babies) underwent comparative genome analyses and the data were then combined with epidemiological data. Trial registration…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A prophage and two ICESa2603-family integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) carrying optrA in Streptococcus suis.

To investigate the presence and transfer of the oxazolidinone/phenicol resistance gene optrA and identify the genetic elements involved in the horizontal transfer of the optrA gene in Streptococcus suis.A total of 237 S. suis isolates were screened for the presence of the optrA gene by PCR. Whole-genome DNA of three optrA-positive strains was completely sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq and Pacbio RSII platforms. MICs were determined by broth microdilution. Transferability of the optrA gene in S. suis was investigated by conjugation. The presence of circular intermediates was examined by inverse PCR.The optrA gene was present in 11.8% (28/237) of the…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Iron-associated protein interaction networks reveal the key functional modules related to survival and virulence of Pasteurella multocida.

Pasteurella multocida causes respiratory infectious diseases in a multitude of birds and mammals. A number of virulence-associated genes were reported across different strains of P. multocida, including those involved in the iron transport and metabolism. Comparative iron-associated genes of P. multocida among different animal hosts towards their interaction networks have not been fully revealed. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the iron-associated genes from core- and pan-genomes of fourteen P. multocida strains and to construct iron-associated protein interaction networks using genome-scale network analysis which might be associated with the virulence. Results showed that these fourteen strains had 1587 genes in…

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