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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Advantages of genome sequencing by long-read sequencer using SMRT technology in medical area.

PacBio RS II is the first commercialized third-generation DNA sequencer able to sequence a single molecule DNA in real-time without amplification. PacBio RS II’s sequencing technology is novel and unique, enabling the direct observation of DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase. PacBio RS II confers four major advantages compared to other sequencing technologies: long read lengths, high consensus accuracy, a low degree of bias, and simultaneous capability of epigenetic characterization. These advantages surmount the obstacle of sequencing genomic regions such as high/low G+C, tandem repeat, and interspersed repeat regions. Moreover, PacBio RS II is ideal for whole genome sequencing, targeted sequencing,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

SMRT-Cappable-seq reveals complex operon variants in bacteria.

Current methods for genome-wide analysis of gene expression require fragmentation of original transcripts into small fragments for short-read sequencing. In bacteria, the resulting fragmented information hides operon complexity. Additionally, in vivo processing of transcripts confounds the accurate identification of the 5′ and 3′ ends of operons. Here we develop a methodology called SMRT-Cappable-seq that combines the isolation of un-fragmented primary transcripts with single-molecule long read sequencing. Applied to E. coli, this technology results in an accurate definition of the transcriptome with 34% of known operons from RegulonDB being extended by at least one gene. Furthermore, 40% of transcription termination sites have…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Carbohydrate staple food modulates gut microbiota of Mongolians in China.

Gut microbiota is a determining factor in human physiological functions and health. It is commonly accepted that diet has a major influence on the gut microbial community, however, the effects of diet is not fully understood. The typical Mongolian diet is characterized by high and frequent consumption of fermented dairy products and red meat, and low level of carbohydrates. In this study, the gut microbiota profile of 26 Mongolians whom consumed wheat, rice and oat as the sole carbohydrate staple food for a week each consecutively was determined. It was observed that changes in staple carbohydrate rapidly (within a week)…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Increasing sorghum yields by seed treatment with an aqueous extract of the plant Eclipta alba may involve a dual mechanism of hydropriming and suppression of fungal pathogens

Background Soaking of sorghum seeds for six hours in an aqueous extract of Eclipta alba has been shown to increase the yield of sorghum in field experiments. The effect on yield is known to depend on field location and a mechanism involving pathogen suppression has been proposed. However, it has not been clear to which extent the same effect can be obtained by soaking of seeds in pure water (hydropriming). To address this question, fifty eight field tests were conducted comparing no treatment of seeds, hydropriming and treatment with plant extract. Experiments were distributed over three years in Burkina Faso…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Dynamic regulation of HIV-1 mRNA populations analyzed by single-molecule enrichment and long-read sequencing.

Alternative RNA splicing greatly expands the repertoire of proteins encoded by genomes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is attractive for studying alternative splicing because of the efficiency and low cost per base, but short reads typical of NGS only report mRNA fragments containing one or few splice junctions. Here, we used single-molecule amplification and long-read sequencing to study the HIV-1 provirus, which is only 9700 bp in length, but encodes nine major proteins via alternative splicing. Our data showed that the clinical isolate HIV-1(89.6) produces at least 109 different spliced RNAs, including a previously unappreciated ~1 kb class of messages, two of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Metagenomic binning and association of plasmids with bacterial host genomes using DNA methylation.

Shotgun metagenomics methods enable characterization of microbial communities in human microbiome and environmental samples. Assembly of metagenome sequences does not output whole genomes, so computational binning methods have been developed to cluster sequences into genome ‘bins’. These methods exploit sequence composition, species abundance, or chromosome organization but cannot fully distinguish closely related species and strains. We present a binning method that incorporates bacterial DNA methylation signatures, which are detected using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Our method takes advantage of these endogenous epigenetic barcodes to resolve individual reads and assembled contigs into species- and strain-level bins. We validate our method using synthetic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comprehensive exploration of the rumen microbial ecosystem with advancements in metagenomics

Ruminant farming and its environmental impact has long remained an economic concern. Metagenomics unravel the vast structural and functional diversity of the rumen microbial community that plays a major role in animal nutrition. Hereby, we summarize rumen metagenomic studies that have enhanced the knowledge of rumen microbe dynamics subsequently leading to development of better feed strategies to improve livestock production and reduce methane emissions.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Construction of Pará rubber tree genome and multi-transcriptome database accelerates rubber researches.

Natural rubber is an economically important material. Currently the Pará rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis is the main commercial source. Little is known about rubber biosynthesis at the molecular level. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies brought draft genomes of three rubber cultivars and a variety of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. However, no current genome or transcriptome databases (DB) are organized by gene.A gene-oriented database is a valuable support for rubber research. Based on our original draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis RRIM600, we constructed a rubber tree genome and transcriptome DB. Our DB provides genome information including gene functional annotations and multi-transcriptome…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Evolution of selective-sequencing approaches for virus discovery and virome analysis.

Recent advances in sequencing technologies have transformed the field of virus discovery and virome analysis. Once mostly confined to the traditional Sanger sequencing based individual virus discovery, is now entirely replaced by high throughput sequencing (HTS) based virus metagenomics that can be used to characterize the nature and composition of entire viromes. To better harness the potential of HTS for the study of viromes, sample preparation methodologies use different approaches to exclude amplification of non-viral components that can overshadow low-titer viruses. These virus-sequence enrichment approaches mostly focus on the sample preparation methods, like enzymatic digestion of non-viral nucleic acids and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The methylome of the gut microbiome: disparate Dam methylation patterns in intestinal Bacteroides dorei

Despite the large interest in the human microbiome in recent years, there are no reports of bacterial DNA methylation in the microbiome. Here metagenomic sequencing using the Pacific Biosciences platform allowed for rapid identification of bacterial GATC methylation status of a bacterial species in human stool samples. For this work, two stool samples were chosen that were dominated by a single species, Bacteroides dorei. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, this species represented over 45% of the bacteria present in these two samples. The B. dorei genome sequence from these samples was determined and the GATC methylation sites mapped. The Bacteroides…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

ABC transporter mis-splicing associated with resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab in laboratory- and field-selected pink bollworm.

Evolution of pest resistance threatens the benefits of genetically engineered crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins. Strategies intended to delay pest resistance are most effective when implemented proactively. Accordingly, researchers have selected for and analyzed resistance to Bt toxins in many laboratory strains of pests before resistance evolves in the field, but the utility of this approach depends on the largely untested assumption that laboratory- and field-selected resistance to Bt toxins are similar. Here we compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab, which is widely deployed in transgenic crops, between laboratory- and field-selected populations of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of the medicinal plant Zanthoxylum planispinum using a single-molecule direct RNA sequencing approach.

High-throughput RNA sequencing has revolutionized transcriptome-based studies of candidate genes, key pathways and gene regulation in non-model organisms. We analyzed full-length cDNA sequences in Zanthoxylum planispinum (Z. planispinum), a medicinal herb in major parts of East Asia. The full-length mRNA derived from tissues of leaf, early fruit and maturing fruit stage were sequenced using PacBio RSII platform to identify isoform transcriptome. We obtained 51,402 unigenes, with average 1781?bp per gene in 82.473?Mb gene lengths. Among 51,402, 3963 unigenes showed variety of isoform. By selection of one representative gene among each of the various isoforms, we finalized 46,306 unique gene set…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

An improved assembly and annotation of the allohexaploid wheat genome identifies complete families of agronomic genes and provides genomic evidence for chromosomal translocations.

Advances in genome sequencing and assembly technologies are generating many high-quality genome sequences, but assemblies of large, repeat-rich polyploid genomes, such as that of bread wheat, remain fragmented and incomplete. We have generated a new wheat whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly using a combination of optimized data types and an assembly algorithm designed to deal with large and complex genomes. The new assembly represents >78% of the genome with a scaffold N50 of 88.8 kb that has a high fidelity to the input data. Our new annotation combines strand-specific Illumina RNA-seq and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) full-length cDNAs to identify 104,091 high-confidence…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from farmed duck, Republic of Korea.

Staphylococcus cohnii has become increasingly recognized as a potential pathogen of clinically significant nosocomial and farm animal infections. This study was designed to determine the genome of a multidrug-resistant S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus strain SNUDS-2 isolated from a farmed duck in Korea.Genomic DNA was sequenced using the PacBio RS II system. The complete genome was annotated and the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were identified.The annotated 2,625,703 bp genome contained various antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to ß-lactam, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, phenicols and trimethoprim. The virulence-associated three synergistic hemolysins have been identified in the strain.To the best of our…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of four C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) from red-lip mullet (Liza haematocheila) and their transcriptional modulation in response to bacterial and pathogen-associated molecular pattern stimuli.

The structural and evolutionary linkage between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the globular C1q (gC1q) domain defines the C1q and TNF-related proteins (CTRPs), which are involved in diverse functions such as immune defense, inflammation, apoptosis, autoimmunity, and cell differentiation. In this study, red-lip mullet (Liza haematocheila) CTRP4-like (MuCTRP4-like), CTRP5 (MuCTRP5), CTRP6 (MuCTRP6), and CTRP7 (MuCTRP7) were identified from the red-lip mullet transcriptome database and molecularly characterized. According to in silico analysis, coding sequences of MuCTRP4-like, MuCTRP5, MuCTRP6, and MuCTRP7 consisted of 1128, 753, 729, and 888 bp open reading frames (ORF), respectively and encoded 375, 250, 242, and 295 amino…

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