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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic microdiversity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum underlying differential strain-level responses to dietary carbohydrate intervention.

The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95) of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample. Intriguingly, these five B. pseudocatenulatum strains showed differential responses during the dietary intervention. Two strains were largely…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Resolving the complexity of human skin metagenomes using single-molecule sequencing.

Deep metagenomic shotgun sequencing has emerged as a powerful tool to interrogate composition and function of complex microbial communities. Computational approaches to assemble genome fragments have been demonstrated to be an effective tool for de novo reconstruction of genomes from these communities. However, the resultant “genomes” are typically fragmented and incomplete due to the limited ability of short-read sequence data to assemble complex or low-coverage regions. Here, we use single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing to reconstruct a high-quality, closed genome of a previously uncharacterized Corynebacterium simulans and its companion bacteriophage from a skin metagenomic sample. Considerable improvement in assembly quality occurs…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12, a potential host for biotechnological applications.

In attempt to obtain a thermophilic host for the conversion of lignocellulose derived substrates into lactic acid, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was isolated from a compost heap. It was selected from over 500 isolates as a genetically tractable hemicellulolytic lactic acid producer, requiring little nutrients. The strain is able to ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously and can produce lactic acid from xylan, making it a potential host for biotechnological applications. The genome of strain T12 consists of a 3.64 Mb chromosome and two plasmids of 59 and 56 kb. It has a total of 3.676 genes with an average genomic GC content of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae R11 reveals multiple genes potentially associated with high-level polymyxin E resistance.

Enterobacter cloacae strain R11 is a multidrug-resistant bacterium isolated from sewage water near a swine feedlot in China. Strain R11 can survive in medium containing up to 192 µg/mL polymyxin E, indicating a tolerance for this antibiotic that is significantly higher than that reported for other gram-negative bacteria. In this study, conjugation experiments showed that partial polymyxin E resistance could be transferred from strain R11 to Escherichia coli strain 25922, revealing that some genes related to polymyxin E resistance are plasmid-based. The complete genome sequence of this strain was determined, yielding a total of 4?993?008 bp (G+C content, 53.15%) and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genome and phenotypic analysis of three Clostridioides difficile strains isolated from a single patient provide insight into multiple infection of C. difficile.

Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) have emerged over the past decade causing symptoms that range from mild, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) to life-threatening toxic megacolon. In this study, we describe a multiple and isochronal (mixed) CDI caused by the isolates DSM 27638, DSM 27639 and DSM 27640 that already initially showed different morphotypes on solid media.The three isolates belonging to the ribotypes (RT) 012 (DSM 27639) and 027 (DSM 27638 and DSM 27640) were phenotypically characterized and high quality closed genome sequences were generated. The genomes were compared with seven reference strains including three strains of the RT 027, two of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The non-specific adenine DNA methyltransferase M.EcoGII.

We describe the cloning, expression and characterization of the first truly non-specific adenine DNA methyltransferase, M.EcoGII. It is encoded in the genome of the pathogenic strain Escherichia coli O104:H4 C227-11, where it appears to reside on a cryptic prophage, but is not expressed. However, when the gene encoding M.EcoGII is expressed in vivo – using a high copy pRRS plasmid vector and a methylation-deficient E. coli host-extensive in vivo adenine methylation activity is revealed. M.EcoGII methylates adenine residues in any DNA sequence context and this activity extends to dA and rA bases in either strand of a DNA:RNA-hybrid oligonucleotide duplex…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genome sequencing of the luminescent bacterium, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67 using PacBio technology.

Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 (Vqin-Q67) is a freshwater luminescent bacterium that continuously emits blue-green light (485?nm). The bacterium has been widely used for detecting toxic contaminants. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Vqin-Q67, obtained using third-generation PacBio sequencing technology. Continuous long reads were attained from three PacBio sequencing runs and reads >500?bp with a quality value of >0.75 were merged together into a single dataset. This resultant highly-contiguous de novo assembly has no genome gaps, and comprises two chromosomes with substantial genetic information, including protein-coding genes, non-coding RNA, transposon and gene islands. Our dataset can be useful as a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole-genome-sequencing characterization of bloodstream infection-causing hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae of capsular serotype K2 and ST374.

Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae variants (hvKP) have been increasingly reported worldwide, causing metastasis of severe infections such as liver abscesses and bacteremia. The capsular serotype K2 hvKP strains show diverse multi-locus sequence types (MLSTs), but with limited genetics and virulence information. In this study, we report a hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae strain, RJF293, isolated from a human bloodstream sample in a Chinese hospital. It caused a metastatic infection and fatal septic shock in a critical patient. The microbiological features and genetic background were investigated with multiple approaches. The Strain RJF293 was determined to be multilocis sequence type (ST) 374 and serotype K2,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genetic basis of emerging vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin heteroresistance in a case of persistent Enterococcus faecium bacteremia.

Whole-genome sequencing was used to examine a persistent Enterococcus faecium bacteremia that acquired heteroresistance to three antibiotics in response to prolonged multidrug therapy. A comparison of the complete genomes before and after each change revealed the emergence of known resistance determinants for vancomycin and linezolid and suggested that a novel mutation in fabF, encoding a fatty acid synthase, was responsible for daptomycin nonsusceptibility. Plasmid recombination contributed to the progressive loss of vancomycin resistance after withdrawal of the drug. Copyright © 2018 Chacko et al.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The novel phages phiCD5763 and phiCD2955 represent two groups of big plasmidial Siphoviridae phages of Clostridium difficile.

Until recently, Clostridium difficile phages were limited to Myoviruses and Siphoviruses of medium genome length (32–57 kb). Here we report the finding of phiCD5763, a Siphovirus with a large extrachromosomal circular genome (132.5 kb, 172 ORFs) and a large capsid (205.6 ± 25.6 nm in diameter) infecting MLST Clade 1 strains of C. difficile. Two subgroups of big phage genomes similar to phiCD5763 were identified in 32 NAPCR1/RT012/ST-54 C. difficile isolates from Costa Rica and in whole genome sequences (WGS) of 41 C. difficile isolates of Clades 1, 2, 3, and 4 from Canada, USA, UK, Belgium, Iraq, and China.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multi-omics Reveals the Lifestyle of the Acidophilic, Mineral-Oxidizing Model Species Leptospirillum ferriphilumT.

Leptospirillum ferriphilum plays a major role in acidic, metal-rich environments, where it represents one of the most prevalent iron oxidizers. These milieus include acid rock and mine drainage as well as biomining operations. Despite its perceived importance, no complete genome sequence of the type strain of this model species is available, limiting the possibilities to investigate the strategies and adaptations that Leptospirillum ferriphilum DSM 14647T (here referred to as Leptospirillum ferriphilumT) applies to survive and compete in its niche. This study presents a complete, circular genome of Leptospirillum ferriphilumT obtained by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) long-read sequencing for use as…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The putative functions of lysogeny in mediating the survivorship of Escherichia coli in seawater and marine sediment.

Escherichia coli colonizes various body parts of animal hosts as a commensal and a pathogen. It can also persist in the external environment in the absence of fecal pollution. It remains unclear how this species has evolved to adapt to such contrasting habitats. Lysogeny plays pivotal roles in the diversification of the phenotypic and ecologic characters of E. coli as a symbiont. We hypothesized that lysogeny could also confer fitness to survival in the external environment. To test this hypothesis, we used the induced phages of an E. coli strain originating from marine sediment to infect a fecal E. coli…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Metabolic versatility of a novel N2-fixing Alphaproteobacterium isolated from a marine oxygen minimum zone.

The N2-fixing (diazotrophic) community in marine ecosystems is dominated by non-cyanobacterial microorganisms. Yet, very little is known about their identity, function and ecological relevance due to a lack of cultured representatives. Here we report a novel heterotrophic diazotroph isolated from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Peru. The new species belongs to the genus Sagittula (Rhodobacteraceae, Alphaproteobacteria) and its capability to fix N2was confirmed in laboratory experiments. Genome sequencing revealed that it is a strict heterotroph with a high versatility in substrate utilization and energy acquisition mechanisms. Pathways for sulfide oxidation and nitrite reduction to nitrous oxide are encoded in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics reveals new single-nucleotide polymorphisms that can assist in identification of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli.

Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) have been involved in Crohn’s disease (CD). Currently, AIEC are identified by time-consuming techniques based on in vitro infection of cell lines to determine their ability to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells as well as to survive and replicate within macrophages. Our aim was to find signature sequences that can be used to identify the AIEC pathotype. Comparative genomics was performed between three E. coli strain pairs, each pair comprised one AIEC and one non-AIEC with identical pulsotype, sequence type and virulence gene carriage. Genetic differences were further analysed in 22 AIEC and 28…

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