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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Extensive intraspecific gene order and gene structural variations in upland cotton cultivars.

Multiple cotton genomes (diploid and tetraploid) have been assembled. However, genomic variations between cultivars of allotetraploid upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the most widely planted cotton species in the world, remain unexplored. Here, we use single-molecule long read and Hi-C sequencing technologies to assemble genomes of the two upland cotton cultivars TM-1 and zhongmiansuo24 (ZM24). Comparisons among TM-1 and ZM24 assemblies and the genomes of the diploid ancestors reveal a large amount of genetic variations. Among them, the top three longest structural variations are located on chromosome A08 of the tetraploid upland cotton, which account for ~30% total length of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comprehensive identification of the full-length transcripts and alternative splicing related to the secondary metabolism pathways in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

Flavonoids, theanine and caffeine are the main secondary metabolites of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis), which account for the tea’s unique flavor quality and health benefits. The biosynthesis pathways of these metabolites have been extensively studied at the transcriptional level, but the regulatory mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, to explore the transcriptome diversity and complexity of tea plant, PacBio Iso-Seq and RNA-seq analysis were combined to obtain full-length transcripts and to profile the changes in gene expression during the leaf development. A total of 1,388,066 reads of insert (ROI) were generated with an average length of 1,762?bp, and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Multi-platform discovery of haplotype-resolved structural variation in human genomes.

The incomplete identification of structural variants (SVs) from whole-genome sequencing data limits studies of human genetic diversity and disease association. Here, we apply a suite of long-read, short-read, strand-specific sequencing technologies, optical mapping, and variant discovery algorithms to comprehensively analyze three trios to define the full spectrum of human genetic variation in a haplotype-resolved manner. We identify 818,054 indel variants (

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Platanus-allee is a de novo haplotype assembler enabling a comprehensive access to divergent heterozygous regions.

The ultimate goal for diploid genome determination is to completely decode homologous chromosomes independently, and several phasing programs from consensus sequences have been developed. These methods work well for lowly heterozygous genomes, but the manifold species have high heterozygosity. Additionally, there are highly divergent regions (HDRs), where the haplotype sequences differ considerably. Because HDRs are likely to direct various interesting biological phenomena, many genomic analysis targets fall within these regions. However, they cannot be accessed by existing phasing methods, and we have to adopt costly traditional methods. Here, we develop a de novo haplotype assembler, Platanus-allee ( http://platanus.bio.titech.ac.jp/platanus2 ), which…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Impact of cDNA Normalization on Long-Read Sequencing of a Complex Transcriptome

Normalization of cDNA is widely used to improve the coverage of rare transcripts in analysis of transcriptomes employing next-generation sequencing. Recently, long-read technology has been emerging as a powerful tool for sequencing and construction of transcriptomes, especially for complex genomes containing highly similar transcripts and transcript-spliced isoforms. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of sugarcane, with a highly polyploidy plant genome, by PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) of two different cDNA library preparations, with and without a normalization step. The results demonstrated that, while the two libraries included many of the same transcripts, many longer transcripts were removed and many new generally…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Reconstruction of the full-length transcriptome atlas using PacBio Iso-Seq provides insight into the alternative splicing in Gossypium australe.

Gossypium australe F. Mueller (2n?=?2x?=?26, G2 genome) possesses valuable characteristics. For example, the delayed gland morphogenesis trait causes cottonseed protein and oil to be edible while retaining resistance to biotic stress. However, the lack of gene sequences and their alternative splicing (AS) in G. australe remain unclear, hindering to explore species-specific biological morphogenesis.Here, we report the first sequencing of the full-length transcriptome of the Australian wild cotton species, G. australe, using Pacific Biosciences single-molecule long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) from the pooled cDNA of ten tissues to identify transcript loci and splice isoforms. We reconstructed the G. australe full-length transcriptome and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Chromosome-level assembly of the water buffalo genome surpasses human and goat genomes in sequence contiguity.

Rapid innovation in sequencing technologies and improvement in assembly algorithms have enabled the creation of highly contiguous mammalian genomes. Here we report a chromosome-level assembly of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) genome using single-molecule sequencing and chromatin conformation capture data. PacBio Sequel reads, with a mean length of 11.5?kb, helped to resolve repetitive elements and generate sequence contiguity. All five B. bubalis sub-metacentric chromosomes were correctly scaffolded with centromeres spanned. Although the index animal was partly inbred, 58% of the genome was haplotype-phased by FALCON-Unzip. This new reference genome improves the contig N50 of the previous short-read based buffalo assembly…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The complexity of the Fragaria x ananassa (octoploid) transcriptome by single-molecule long-read sequencing.

Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is an allopolyploid species with diverse and complex transcripts. The regulatory mechanisms of fruit development and maturation have been extensively studied; however, little is known about the signaling mechanisms that direct this process in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Here, we used long-read sequencing (LRS) technology and RNA-seq analysis to investigate the diversity and complexity of the polyploid transcriptome and differentially expressed transcripts along four successive fruit developmental stages of cultivated strawberry. We obtained a reference transcriptome with 119,897 unique full-length isoforms, including 2017 new isoforms and 2510 long noncoding RNAs. Based on the genome of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Differential retention of transposable element-derived sequences in outcrossing Arabidopsis genomes.

Transposable elements (TEs) are genomic parasites with major impacts on host genome architecture and host adaptation. A proper evaluation of their evolutionary significance has been hampered by the paucity of short scale phylogenetic comparisons between closely related species. Here, we characterized the dynamics of TE accumulation at the micro-evolutionary scale by comparing two closely related plant species, Arabidopsis lyrata and A. halleri.Joint genome annotation in these two outcrossing species confirmed that both contain two distinct populations of TEs with either ‘recent’ or ‘old’ insertion histories. Identification of rare segregating insertions suggests that diverse TE families contribute to the ongoing dynamics…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

Webinar: Bioinformatics lunch & learn – HiFi assembly

The release of the PacBio Sequel II System in 2019 brought dramatic throughput improvements and protocols for producing a new data type, highly accurate long reads or HiFi reads. PacBio is the only sequencing technology to offer highly accurate long reads (HiFi reads) that provide Sanger-quality accuracy (>99%) with the read lengths needed for assembly of complex genomes. The long length and high accuracy of HiFi reads makes them the ideal starting point for many applications, and one area of major interest is genome assembly. HiFi assembly is faster, cheaper, more accurate, and easier to phase than standard long-read assembly.…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

PAG Conference: How SMRT Sequencing is accelerating plant and animal genomics

In this presentation, Justin Blethrow provides an overview of recent and upcoming developments across PacBio’s SMRT Sequencing product portfolio, and their implications for PacBio’s major applications. In presenting the product roadmap, he illustrates how key new products coming in 2019 will make SMRT Sequencing dramatically more affordable and easy to use, and how they will enable customers to routinely produce highly accurate, single-molecule long reads.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

PAG Conference: The impact of highly accurate PacBio sequence data on the assembly of a tetraploid rose

In this presentation at PAG 2020, Bart Nijland of Genetwister Technologies explains how his team set out to make a haplotype-aware assembly of the highly complex tetraploid Rosa x hybrida L. genome in order to capture its full range of genetic variation. HiFi reads generated from PacBio’s Sequel II System have made it possible to parse out critical information from many of the plant’s parental genes.

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Monday, March 30, 2020

PAG PacBio Workshop: Genome assembly strategies of the recent polyploid, Coffea arabica

Susan Strickler of the Boyce Thompson Institute presented strategies for assembling the genome of Arabica coffee, an allotetraploid with a genome size of approximately 1.3 Gb. A de novo PacBio assembly was constructed and presented. The new high-quality reference will be used to guide assemblies of the diploid ancestors of Arabica coffee and re-sequencing data for a set of C. arabica accessions to more fully characterize the genetic diversity of this crop species that is highly susceptible to climate change.

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