June 1, 2021  |  

Impact of DNA quality on PacBio RS II read lengths.

Maximizing the read length of next generation sequencing (NGS) facilitates de novo genome assembly. Currently, the PacBio RS II system leads the industry with respect to maximum possible NGS read lengths. Amplicon Express specializes in preparation of high molecular weight, NGS-grade genomic DNA for a variety of applications, including next generation sequencing. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of gDNA quality on PacBio RS II read length.


June 1, 2021  |  

The resurgence of reference quality genome sequence.

Since the advent of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), the cost of de novo genome sequencing and assembly have dropped precipitately, which has spurred interest in genome sequencing overall. Unfortunately the contiguity of the NGS assembled sequences, as well as the accuracy of these assemblies have suffered. Additionally, most NGS de novo assemblies leave large portions of genomes unresolved, and repetitive regions are often collapsed. When compared to the reference quality genome sequences produced before the NGS era, the new sequences are highly fragmented and often prove to be difficult to properly annotate. In some cases the contiguous portions are smaller than the average gene size making the sequence not nearly as useful for biologists as the earlier reference quality genomes including of Human, Mouse, C. elegans, or Drosophila. Recently, new 3rd generation sequencing technologies, long-range molecular techniques, and new informatics tools have facilitated a return to high quality assembly. We will discuss the capabilities of the technologies and assess their impact on assembly projects across the tree of life from small microbial and fungal genomes through large plant and animal genomes. Beyond improvements to contiguity, we will focus on the additional biological insights that can be made with better assemblies, including more complete analysis genes in their flanking regulatory context, in-depth studies of transposable elements and other complex gene families, and long-range synteny analysis of entire chromosomes. We will also discuss the need for new algorithms for representing and analyzing collections of many complete genomes at once.


June 1, 2021  |  

SMRT Sequencing of DNA and RNA samples extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues using adaptive focused acoustics by Covaris.

Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have led to an increased use of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for medical samples in disease and scientific research. Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing offers a unique advantage for direct analysis of FFPE samples without amplification. However, obtaining ample long-read information from FFPE samples has been a challenge due to the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA. FFPE samples often contain damaged sites, including breaks in the backbone and missing or altered nucleotide bases, which directly impact sequencing and target enrichment. Additionally, the quality and quantity of the recovered DNA vary depending on the extraction methods used. We have evaluated the Covaris® Adaptive Focused Acoustics (AFA) system as a method for obtaining high molecular weight DNA suitable for SMRTbell™ template preparation and subsequent PacBio RS II sequencing. To test the Covaris system, we extracted DNA from normal kidney FFPE scrolls acquired from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network (CHTN), University of Pennsylvania. Damaged sites in the extracted DNA were repaired using a DNA Damage Repair step, and the treated DNA was constructed into SMRTbell libraries for sequencing on the PacBio System. Using the same repaired DNA, we also tested the efficiency of PCR in amplifying targets of up to 10 kb. The resulting amplicons were also constructed into SMRTbell templates for full-length sequencing on the PacBio System. We found the Adaptive Focused Acoustics (AFA) system by Covaris to be effective. This system is easy and simple to use, and the resulting DNA is compatible with SMRTbell library preparation for targeted and whole genome SMRT Sequencing. The data presented here demonstrates feasibility of SMRT Sequencing with FFPE samples.


June 1, 2021  |  

Best practices for whole-genome de novo sequencing with long-read SMRT Sequencing.

With the introduction of P6-C4 chemistry, PacBio has made significant strides with Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing . Read lengths averaging between 10 and 15 kb can be now be achieved with extreme reads in the distribution of > 60 kb. The chemistry attains a consensus accuracy of 99.999% (QV50) at 30x coverage which coupled with an increased throughput from the PacBio RS II platform (500 Mb – 1 Gb per SMRT Cell) makes larger genome projects more tractable. These combined advancements in technology deliver results that rival the quality of Sanger “clone-by-clone” sequencing efforts; resulting in closed microbial genomes and highly contiguous de novo assembly of complex eukaryotes on multi-Gbase scale using SMRT Sequencing as the standalone technology. We present here the guidelines and best practices to achieve optimal results when employing PacBio-only whole genome shotgun sequencing strategies. Specific sequencing examples for plant and animal genomes are discussed with SMRTbell library preparation and purification methods for obtaining long insert libraries to generate optimal sequencing results. The benefits of long reads are demonstrated by the highly contiguous assemblies yielding contig N50s of over 5 Mb compared to similar assemblies using next-generation short-read approaches. Finally, guidelines will be presented for planning out projects for the de novo assembly of large genomes.


June 1, 2021  |  

Full-length isoform sequencing of the human MCF-7 cell line using PacBio long reads.

While advances in RNA sequencing methods have accelerated our understanding of the human transcriptome, isoform discovery remains a challenge because short read lengths require complicated assembly algorithms to infer the contiguity of full-length transcripts. With PacBio’s long reads, one can now sequence full-length transcript isoforms up to 10 kb. The PacBio Iso- Seq protocol produces reads that originate from independent observations of single molecules, meaning no assembly is needed. Here, we sequenced the transcriptome of the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line using the Clontech SMARTer® cDNA preparation kit and the PacBio RS II. Using PacBio Iso-Seq bioinformatics software, we obtained 55,770 unique, full-length, high-quality transcript sequences that were subsequently mapped back to the human genome with = 99% accuracy. In addition, we identified both known and novel fusion transcripts. To assess our results, we compared the predicted ORFs from the PacBio data against a published mass spectrometry dataset from the same cell line. 84% of the proteins identified with the Uniprot protein database were recovered by the PacBio predictions. Notably, 251 peptides solely matched to the PacBio generated ORFs and were entirely novel, including abundant cases of single amino acid polymorphisms, cassette exon splicing and potential alternative protein coding frames.


June 1, 2021  |  

Analysis of full-length metagenomic 16S genes by Single Molecule, Real-Time Sequencing

High-throughput sequencing of the complete 16S rRNA gene has become a valuable tool for characterizing microbial communities. However, the short reads produced by second-generation sequencing cannot provide taxonomic classification below the genus level. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of PacBio’s Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing to generate community profiles using mock microbial community samples from BEI Resources. We also evaluate multiplexing capabilities using PacBio barcodes on pooled samples comprising heterogeneous 16S amplicon populations representing soil, fecal, and mock communities.


June 1, 2021  |  

Building a platinum human genome assembly from single haplotype human genomes generated from long molecule sequencing

The human reference sequence has provided a foundation for studies of genome structure, human variation, evolutionary biology, and disease. At the time the reference was originally completed there were some loci recalcitrant to closure; however, the degree to which structural variation and diversity affected our ability to produce a representative genome sequence at these loci was still unknown. Many of these regions in the genome are associated with large, repetitive sequences and exhibit complex allelic diversity such producing a single, haploid representation is not possible. To overcome this challenge, we have sequenced DNA from two hydatidiform moles (CHM1 and CHM13), which are essentially haploid. CHM13 was sequenced with the latest PacBio technology (P6-C5) to 52X genome coverage and assembled using Daligner and Falcon v0.2 (GCA_000983455.1, CHM13_1.1). Compared to the first mole (CHM1) PacBio assembly (GCA_001007805.1, 54X) contig N50 of 4.5Mb, the contig N50 of CHM13_1.1 is almost 13Mb, and there is a 13-fold reduction in the number of contigs. This demonstrates the improved contiguity of sequence generated with the new chemistry. We annotated 50,188 RefSeq transcripts of which only 0.63% were split transcripts, and the repetitive and segmental duplication content was within the expected range. These data all indicate an extremely high quality assembly. Additionally, we sequenced CHM13 DNA using Illumina SBS technology to 60X coverage, aligned these reads to the GRCh37, GRCh38, and CHM13_1.1 assemblies and performed variant calling using the SpeedSeq pipeline. The number of single nucleotide variants (SNV) and indels was comparable between GRCh37 and GRCh38. Regions that showed increased SNV density in GRCh38 compared to GRCh37 could be attributed to the addition of centromeric alpha satellite sequence to the reference assembly. Alternatively, regions of decreased SNV density in GRCh38 were concentrated in regions that were improved from BAC based sequencing of CHM1 such as 1p12 and 1q21 containing the SRGAP2 gene family. The alignment of PacBio reads to GRCh37 and GRCh38 assemblies allowed us to resolve complex loci such as the MHC region where the best alignment was to the DBB (A2-B57-DR7) haplotype. Finally, we will discuss how combining the two high quality mole assemblies can be used for benchmarking and novel bioinformatics tool development.


June 1, 2021  |  

Comprehensive genome and transcriptome structural analysis of a breast cancer cell line using PacBio long read sequencing

Genomic instability is one of the hallmarks of cancer, leading to widespread copy number variations, chromosomal fusions, and other structural variations. The breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 is an important model for HER2+ breast cancers, which are among the most aggressive forms of the disease and affect one in five cases. Through short read sequencing, copy number arrays, and other technologies, the genome of SK-BR-3 is known to be highly rearranged with many copy number variations, including an approximately twenty-fold amplification of the HER2 oncogene. However, these technologies cannot precisely characterize the nature and context of the identified genomic events and other important mutations may be missed altogether because of repeats, multi-mapping reads, and the failure to reliably anchor alignments to both sides of a variation. To address these challenges, we have sequenced SK-BR-3 using PacBio long read technology. Using the new P6-C4 chemistry, we generated more than 70X coverage of the genome with average read lengths of 9-13kb (max: 71kb). Using Lumpy for split-read alignment analysis, as well as our novel assembly-based algorithms for finding complex variants, we have developed a detailed map of structural variations in this cell line. Taking advantage of the newly identified breakpoints and combining these with copy number assignments, we have developed an algorithm to reconstruct the mutational history of this cancer genome. From this we have discovered a complex series of nested duplications and translocations between chr17 and chr8, two of the most frequent translocation partners in primary breast cancers, resulting in amplification of HER2. We have also carried out full-length transcriptome sequencing using PacBio’s Iso-Seq technology, which has revealed a number of previously unrecognized gene fusions and isoforms. Combining long-read genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies enables an in-depth analysis of how changes in the genome affect the transcriptome, including how gene fusions are created across multiple chromosomes. This analysis has established the most complete cancer reference genome available to date, and is already opening the door to applying long-read sequencing to patient samples with complex genome structures.


June 1, 2021  |  

SMRT Sequencing of the alala genome

Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing was used to generate long reads for whole genome shotgun sequencing of the genome of the`alala (Hawaiian crow). The ‘alala is endemic to Hawaii, and the only surviving lineage of the crow family, Corvidae, in the Hawaiian Islands. The population declined to less than 20 individuals in the 1990s, and today this charismatic species is extinct in the wild. Currently existing in only two captive breeding facilities, reintroduction of the ‘alala is scheduled to begin in the Fall of 2016. Reintroduction efforts will be assisted by information from the ‘alala genome generated and assembled by SMRT Technology, which will allow detailed analysis of genes associated with immunity, behavior, and learning. Using SMRT Sequencing, we present here best practices for achieving long reads for whole genome shotgun sequencing for complex plant and animal genomes such as the ‘alala genome. With recent advances in SMRTbell library preparation, P6-C4 chemistry and 6-hour movies, the number of useable bases now exceeds 1 Gb per SMRT Cell. Read lengths averaging 10 – 15 kb can be routinely achieved, with the longest reads approaching 70 kb. Furthermore, > 25% of useable bases are in reads greater than 30 kb, advantageous for generating contiguous draft assemblies of contig N50 up to 5 Mb. De novo assemblies of large genomes are now more tractable using SMRT Sequencing as the standalone technology. We also present guidelines for planning out projects for the de novo assembly of large genomes.


June 1, 2021  |  

Long-read assembly of the Aedes aegypti Aag2 cell line genome resolves ancient endogenous viral elements

Transmission of arboviruses such as Dengue Virus by Aedes aegypti causes debilitating disease across the globe. Disease in humans can include severe acute symptoms such as hemorrhagic fever and organ failure, but mosquitoes tolerate high titers of virus in a persistent infection. The mechanisms responsible for this viral tolerance are unclear. Recent publications highlighted the integration of genetic material from non-retroviral RNA viruses into the genome of the host during infection that relies upon endogenous retro-transcriptase activity from transposons. These endogenous viral elements (EVEs) found in the genome are predicted to be ancient, and at least some EVEs are under purifying selection, suggesting they are beneficial to the host. To characterize EVE biogenesis in a tractable system, we sequenced the Ae. aegypti cell line, Aag2, to 58-fold coverage and present a de novo assembly of the genome. The assembly contains 1.7 Gb of genomic and 255 Mb of alternative haplotype specific sequence, consisting of contigs with a N50 of 1.4 Mb; a value that, when compared with other assemblies of the Aedes genus, is from 1-3 orders of magnitude longer. The Aag2 genome is highly repetitive (70%), most of which is classified as transposable elements (60%). We identify EVEs in the genome homologous to a range of extant viruses, many of which cluster in these regions of repetitive DNA. The contiguous assembly allows for more comprehensive identification of the transposable elements and EVEs that are most likely to be lost in assemblies lacking the read length of SMRT Sequencing.


June 1, 2021  |  

Diploid genome assembly and comprehensive haplotype sequence reconstruction

Outside of the simplest cases (haploid, bacteria, or inbreds), genomic information is not carried in a single reference per individual, but rather has higher ploidy (n=>2) for almost all organisms. The existence of two or more highly related sequences within an individual makes it extremely difficult to build high quality, highly contiguous genome assemblies from short DNA fragments. Based on the earlier work on a polyploidy aware assembler, FALCON ( https://github.com/PacificBiosciences/FALCON) , we developed new algorithms and software (“FALCON-unzip”) for de novo haplotype reconstructions from SMRT Sequencing data. We generate two datasets for developing the algorithms and the prototype software: (1) whole genome sequencing data from a highly repetitive diploid fungal (Clavicorona pyxidata) and (2) whole genome sequencing data from an F1 hybrid from two inbred Arabidopsis strains: Cvi-0 and Col-0. For the fungal genome, we achieved an N50 of 1.53 Mb (of the 1n assembly contigs) of the ~42 Mb 1n genome and an N50 of the haplotigs (haplotype specific contigs) of 872 kb from a 95X read length N50 ~16 kb dataset. We found that ~ 45% of the genome was highly heterozygous and ~55% of the genome was highly homozygous. We developed methods to assess the base-level accuracy and local haplotype phasing accuracy of the assembly with short-read data from the Illumina® platform. For the ArabidopsisF1 hybrid genome, we found that 80% of the genome could be separated into haplotigs. The long range accuracy of phasing haplotigs was evaluated by comparing them to the assemblies from the two inbred parental lines. We show that a more complete view of all haplotypes could provide useful biological insights through improved annotation, characterization of heterozygous variants of all sizes, and resolution of differential allele expression. The current Falcon-Unzip method will lead to understand how to solve more difficult polyploid genome assembly problems and improve the computational efficiency for large genome assemblies. Based on this work, we can develop a pipeline enabling routinely assemble diploid or polyploid genomes as haplotigs, representing a comprehensive view of the genomes that can be studied with the information at hand.


June 1, 2021  |  

Un-zipping diploid genomes – revealing all kinds of heterozygous variants from comprehensive hapltotig assemblies

Outside of the simplest cases (haploid, bacteria, or inbreds), genomic information is not carried in a single reference per individual, but rather has higher ploidy (n=>2) for almost all organisms. The existence of two or more highly related sequences within an individual makes it extremely difficult to build high quality, highly contiguous genome assemblies from short DNA fragments. Based on the earlier work on a polyploidy aware assembler, FALCON (https://github.com/PacificBiosciences/FALCON), we developed new algorithms and software (FALCON-unzip) for de novo haplotype reconstructions from SMRT Sequencing data. We apply the algorithms and the prototype software for (1) a highly repetitive diploid fungal genome (Clavicorona pyxidata) and (2) an F1 hybrid from two inbred Arabidopsis strains: CVI-0 and COL-0. For the fungal genome, we achieved an N50 of 1.53 Mb (of the 1n assembly contigs) of the ~42 Mb 1n genome and an N50 of the haplotigs of 872 kb from a 95X read length N50 ~16 kb dataset. We found that ~ 45% of the genome was highly heterozygous and ~55% of the genome was highly homozygous. We developed methods to assess the base-level accuracy and local haplotype phasing accuracy of the assembly with short-read data from the Illumina platform. For the Arabidopsis F1 hybrid genome, we found that 80% of the genome could be separated into haplotigs. The long range accuracy of phasing haplotigs was evaluated by comparing them to the assemblies from the two inbred parental lines. We show that a more complete view of all haplotypes could provide useful biological insights through improved annotation, characterization of heterozygous variants of all sizes, and resolution of differential allele expression. Finally, we applied this method to WGS human data sets to demonstrate the potential for resolving complicated, medically-relevant genomic regions.


June 1, 2021  |  

Long-read assembly of the Aedes aegypti Aag2 cell line genome resolves ancient endogenous viral elements

Transmission of arboviruses such as Dengue and Zika viruses by Aedes aegypti causes widespread and debilitating disease across the globe. Disease in humans can include severe acute symptoms such as hemorrhagic fever, organ failure, and encephalitis; and yet, mosquitoes tolerate high titers of virus in a persistent infection. The mechanisms responsible for tolerance to viral infection in mosquitoes are still unclear. Recent publications have highlighted the integration of genetic material from non-retroviral RNA viruses into the genome of the host during infection that relies upon endogenous retro-transcriptase activity from transposons. These endogenous viral elements (EVEs) found in the genome are predicted to be ancient and at least some EVEs are under purifying selection, which suggests that they are beneficial to the host. In order characterize EVE biogenesis in a tractable system we sequenced the Ae. aegypti cell line, Aag2, to 58X coverage and here present a de novo assembly of the genome. The assembly consists of 1.7 Gb of genomic and 255 Mb of alternative haplotype specific sequence, made up of contigs with a N50 of 1.4 Mb; a value that, when compared with other assemblies of the Aedes genus, is from 1-3 orders of magnitude longer. The Aag2 genome is highly repetitive (70%), most of which is classified as transposable elements (60%). We identify a plethora of EVEs in the genome homologous to a diverse range of extant viruses, many of which cluster in these regions of highly repetitive DNA. The highly contiguous nature of this assembly allows for a more comprehensive identification of the transposable elements and EVEs that are most likely to be lost in assemblies lacking the read length of SMRT Sequencing. Transmission of arboviruses such as Dengue Virus by Aedes aegypti causes widespread and debilitating disease across the globe. Disease in humans can include severe acute symptoms such as hemorrhagic fever, organ failure, and encephalitis; and yet, mosquitoes tolerate high titers of virus in a persistent infection. The mechanisms responsible for tolerance to viral infection in mosquitoes are still unclear. Recent publications have highlighted the integration of genetic material from non-retroviral RNA viruses into the genome of the host during infection that relies upon endogenous retro-transcriptase activity from transposons. These endogenous viral elements (EVEs) found in the genome are predicted to be ancient and at least some EVEs are under purifying selection, which suggests that they are beneficial to the host. In order characterize EVE biogenesis in a tractable system we sequenced the Ae. aegypti cell line, Aag2, to 58X coverage and here present a de novo assembly of the genome. The assembly consists of 1.7 Gb of genomic and 255 Mb of alternative haplotype specific sequence, made up of contigs with a N50 of 1.4 Mb; a value that, when compared with other assemblies of the Aedes genus, is from 1-3 orders of magnitude longer. The Aag2 genome is highly repetitive (70%), most of which is classified as transposable elements (60%). We identify a plethora of EVEs in the genome homologous to a diverse range of extant viruses, many of which cluster in these regions of highly repetitive DNA. The highly contiguous nature of this assembly allows for a more comprehensive identification of the transposable elements and EVEs that are most likely to be lost in assemblies lacking the read length of SMRT Sequencing. Transmission of arboviruses such as Dengue Virus by Aedes aegypti causes widespread and debilitating disease across the globe. Disease in humans can include severe acute symptoms such as hemorrhagic fever, organ failure, and encephalitis; and yet, mosquitoes tolerate high titers of virus in a persistent infection. The mechanisms responsible for tolerance to viral infection in mosquitoes are still unclear.


June 1, 2021  |  

Application specific barcoding strategies for SMRT Sequencing

Over the last few years, several advances were implemented in the PacBio RS II System to maximize throughput and efficiency while reducing the cost per sample. The number of useable bases per SMRT Cell now exceeds 1 Gb with the latest P6-C4 chemistry and 6-hour movies. For applications such as microbial sequencing, targeted sequencing, Iso-Seq (full-length isoform sequencing) and Nimblegen’s target enrichment method, current SMRT Cell yields could be an excess relative to project requirements. To this end, barcoding is a viable option for multiplexing samples. For microbial sequencing, multiplexing can be accomplished by tagging sheared genomic DNA during library construction with modified SMRTbell adapters. We studied the performance of 2- to 8-plex microbial sequencing. For full-length amplicon sequencing such as HLA typing, amplicons as large as 5 kb may be barcoded during amplification using barcoded locus-specific primers. Alternatively, amplicons may be barcoded during SMRTbell library construction using barcoded SMRTbell adapters. The preferred barcoding strategy depends on the user’s existing workflow and flexibility to changing and/or updating existing workflows. Using barcoded adapters, five Class I and II genes (3.3 – 5.8 kb) x 96 patients can be multiplexed and typed. For Iso-Seq full-length cDNA sequencing, barcodes are incorporated during 1st-strand synthesis and are enabled by tailing the oligo-dT primer with any PacBio published 16-bp barcode sequences. RNA samples from 6 maize tissues were multiplexed to generate barcoded cDNA libraries. The NimbleGen SeqCap Target Enrichment method, combined with PacBio’s long-read sequencing, provides comprehensive view of multi-kilobase contiguous regions, both exonic and intronic regions. To make this cost effective, we recommend barcoding samples for pooling prior to target enrichment and capture. Here, we present specific examples of strategies and best practices for multiplexing samples for different applications for SMRT Sequencing. Additionally, we describe recommendations for analyzing barcoded samples.


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