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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Nucleotide-binding resistance gene signatures in sugar beet, insights from a new reference genome.

Nucleotide-binding (NB-ARC), leucine-rich-repeat genes (NLRs) account for 60.8% of resistance (R) genes molecularly characterized from plants. NLRs exist as large gene families prone to tandem duplication and transposition, with high sequence diversity among crops and their wild relatives. This diversity can be a source of new disease resistance, but difficulty in distinguishing specific sequences from homologous gene family members hinders characterization of resistance for improving crop varieties. Current genome sequencing and assembly technologies, especially those using long-read sequencing, are improving resolution of repeat-rich genomic regions and clarifying locations of duplicated genes, such as NLRs. Using the conserved NB-ARC domain as…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase as a candidate gene for Rvi12 (Vb)-based apple scab resistance

Apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis is the most important fungal disease of apples (Malus × domestica). Currently, the disease is controlled by up to 15 fungicide applications to the crop per year. Resistant apple cultivars will help promote the sustainable control of scab in commercial orchards. The breakdown of the Rvi6 (Vf) major-gene based resistance, the most used resistance gene in apple breeding, prompted the identification and characterization of new scab resistance genes. By using a large segregating population, the Rvi12 scab resistance gene was previously mapped to a genetic location flanked by molecular markers SNP_23.599 and SNP_24.482. Starting…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Gene duplication and evolution dynamics in the homeologous regions harboring multiple prolamin and resistance gene families in hexaploid wheat.

Improving end-use quality and disease resistance are important goals in wheat breeding. The genetic loci controlling these traits are highly complex, consisting of large families of prolamin and resistance genes with members present in all three homeologous A, B, and D genomes in hexaploid bread wheat. Here, orthologous regions harboring both prolamin and resistance gene loci were reconstructed and compared to understand gene duplication and evolution in different wheat genomes. Comparison of the two orthologous D regions from the hexaploid wheat Chinese Spring and the diploid progenitor Aegilops tauschii revealed their considerable difference due to the presence of five large…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Pm21 from Haynaldia villosa encodes a CC-NBS-LRR protein conferring powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive disease of wheat throughout the world. One of the most important environmental-friendly and economical methods to reduce wheat loss caused by Bgt is to develop highly resistant varieties (Kuraparthy et al., 2007). Pm21 from the wild species Haynaldia villosa (also known as Dasypyrum villosum) confers high resistance to Bgt in wheat throughout all growth stages. It has now become one of the most highly effective genetic loci introgressed into wheat from wild species, and the commercial varieties harboring Pm21 have been widely used in wheat production…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A mosaic monoploid reference sequence for the highly complex genome of sugarcane.

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a major crop for sugar and bioenergy production. Its highly polyploid, aneuploid, heterozygous, and interspecific genome poses major challenges for producing a reference sequence. We exploited colinearity with sorghum to produce a BAC-based monoploid genome sequence of sugarcane. A minimum tiling path of 4660 sugarcane BAC that best covers the gene-rich part of the sorghum genome was selected based on whole-genome profiling, sequenced, and assembled in a 382-Mb single tiling path of a high-quality sequence. A total of 25,316 protein-coding gene models are predicted, 17% of which display no colinearity with their sorghum orthologs. We show…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic variation among and within six Juglans species.

Genomic analysis in Juglans (walnuts) is expected to transform the breeding and agricultural production of both nuts and lumber. To that end, we report here the determination of reference sequences for six additional relatives of Juglans regia: Juglans sigillata (also from section Dioscaryon), Juglans nigra, Juglans microcarpa, Juglans hindsii (from section Rhysocaryon), Juglans cathayensis (from section Cardiocaryon), and the closely related Pterocarya stenoptera While these are ‘draft’ genomes, ranging in size between 640Mbp and 990Mbp, their contiguities and accuracies can support powerful annotations of genomic variation that are often the foundation of new avenues of research and breeding. We annotated…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Sequencing of Panax notoginseng genome reveals genes involved in disease resistance and ginsenoside biosynthesis

Background: Panax notoginseng is a traditional Chinese herb with high medicinal and economic value. There has been considerable research on the pharmacological activities of ginsenosides contained in Panax spp.; however, very little is known about the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Results: We reported the first de novo genome of 2.36 Gb of sequences from P. notoginseng with 35,451 protein-encoding genes. Compared to other plants, we found notable gene family contraction of disease-resistance genes in P. notoginseng, but notable expansion for several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamilies, such as the Gpdr subfamily, indicating that ABCs might be an additional mechanism for the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Towards map-based cloning of FB_Mfu10: identification of a receptor-like kinase candidate gene underlying the Malus fusca fire blight resistance locus on linkage group 10.

Breeding for resistance against the destructive fire blight disease of apples is the most sustainable strategy to control the menace of this disease, and has become increasingly important in European apple breeding programs. Since most cultivars are susceptible, wild accessions have been explored for resistance with quantitative trait loci detected in a few wild species. Fire blight resistance of Malus fusca was described following phenotypic evaluations with a C-type strain of Erwinia amylovora, Ea222_JKI, and the detection of a major QTL on chromosome 10 (Mfu10) of this crabapple. The stability of the resistance of M. fusca and Mfu10 has been…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ma orthologous genes in Prunus spp. shed light on a noteworthy NBS-LRR cluster conferring differential resistance to root-knot nematodes.

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are considerable polyphagous pests that severely challenge plants worldwide and especially perennials. The specific genetic resistance of plants mainly relies on the NBS-LRR genes that are pivotal factors for pathogens control. In Prunus spp., the Ma plum and RMja almond genes possess different spectra for resistance to RKNs. While previous works based on the Ma gene allowed to clone it and to decipher its peculiar TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) structure, we only knew that the RMja gene mapped on the same chromosome as Ma. We carried out a high-resolution mapping using an almond segregating F2 progeny of 1448 seedlings…

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