July 7, 2019  |  

Recombination rate heterogeneity within Arabidopsis disease resistance genes.

Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and 5. We experimentally mapped 1,439 crossovers within these clusters and observed NBS-LRR gene associated hotspots, which were also detected as historical hotspots via analysis of linkage disequilibrium. However, we also observed NBS-LRR gene coldspots, which in some cases correlate with structural heterozygosity. To study recombination at the fine-scale we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze ~1,000 crossovers within the RESISTANCE TO ALBUGO CANDIDA1 (RAC1) R gene hotspot. This revealed elevated intragenic crossovers, overlapping nucleosome-occupied exons that encode the TIR, NBS and LRR domains. The highest RAC1 recombination frequency was promoter-proximal and overlapped CTT-repeat DNA sequence motifs, which have previously been associated with plant crossover hotspots. Additionally, we show a significant influence of natural genetic variation on NBS-LRR cluster recombination rates, using crosses between Arabidopsis ecotypes. In conclusion, we show that a subset of NBS-LRR genes are strong hotspots, whereas others are coldspots. This reveals a complex recombination landscape in Arabidopsis NBS-LRR genes, which we propose results from varying coevolutionary pressures exerted by host-pathogen relationships, and is influenced by structural heterozygosity.


July 7, 2019  |  

Whole genomic sequence analysis of Bacillus infantis: defining the genetic blueprint of strain NRRL B-14911, an emerging cardiopathogenic microbe.

We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911.Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we propose that this organism belongs to the species Bacillus infantis, previously shown to be associated with sepsis in a newborn child. Analysis of the complete genome of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 revealed several virulence factors including adhesins, invasins, colonization factors, siderophores and transporters. Likewise, the bacterial genome encodes a wide range of methyl transferases, transporters, enzymatic and biochemical pathways, and insertion sequence elements that are distinct from other closely related bacilli.The complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 provided in this study may facilitate genetic manipulations to assess gene functions associated with bacterial survival and virulence. Additionally, this bacterium may serve as a useful tool to establish a disease model that permits systematic analysis of autoimmune events in various susceptible rodent strains.


July 7, 2019  |  

Comparative methylome analysis of the occasional ruminant respiratory pathogen Bibersteinia trehalosi.

We examined and compared both the methylomes and the modification-related gene content of four sequenced strains of Bibersteinia trehalosi isolated from the nasopharyngeal tracts of Nebraska cattle with symptoms of bovine respiratory disease complex. The methylation patterns and the encoded DNA methyltransferase (MTase) gene sets were different between each strain, with the only common pattern being that of Dam (GATC). Among the observed patterns were three novel motifs attributable to Type I restriction-modification systems. In some cases the differences in methylation patterns corresponded to the gain or loss of MTase genes, or to recombination at target recognition domains that resulted in changes of enzyme specificity. However, in other cases the differences could be attributed to differential expression of the same MTase gene across strains. The most obvious regulatory mechanism responsible for these differences was slipped strand mispairing within short sequence repeat regions. The combined action of these evolutionary forces allows for alteration of different parts of the methylome at different time scales. We hypothesize that pleiotropic transcriptional modulation resulting from the observed methylomic changes may be involved with the switch between the commensal and pathogenic states of this common member of ruminant microflora.


July 7, 2019  |  

‘Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga’, an uncultivated electroautotroph from a biocathode enrichment.

Biocathode communities are of interest for a variety of applications, including electrosynthesis, bioremediation, and biosensors, yet much remains to be understood about the biological processes that occur to enable these communities to grow. One major difficulty in understanding these communities is that the critical autotrophic organisms are difficult to cultivate. An uncultivated, electroautotrophic bacterium previously identified as an uncultivated member of the family Chromatiaceae appears to be a key organism in an autotrophic biocathode microbial community. Metagenomic, metaproteomic and metatranscriptomic characterization of this community indicates that there is likely a single organism that utilizes electrons from the cathode to fix CO2, yet this organism has not been obtained in pure culture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals that the organism grows as rod-shaped cells approximately 1.8 × 0.6 µm, and forms large clumps on the cathode. The genomic DNA G+C content was 59.2 mol%. Here we identify the key features of this organism and propose ‘Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga’, within the Gammaproteobacteria on the basis of low nucleotide and predicted protein sequence identity to known members of the orders Chromatiales and Thiotrichales.


July 7, 2019  |  

Novel m4C modification in type I restriction-modification systems.

We identify a new subgroup of Type I Restriction-Modification enzymes that modify cytosine in one DNA strand and adenine in the opposite strand for host protection. Recognition specificity has been determined for ten systems using SMRT sequencing and each recognizes a novel DNA sequence motif. Previously characterized Type I systems use two identical copies of a single methyltransferase (MTase) subunit, with one bound at each half site of the specificity (S) subunit to form the MTase. The new m4C-producing Type I systems we describe have two separate yet highly similar MTase subunits that form a heterodimeric M1M2S MTase. The MTase subunits from these systems group into two families, one of which has NPPF in the highly conserved catalytic motif IV and modifies adenine to m6A, and one having an NPPY catalytic motif IV and modifying cytosine to m4C. The high degree of similarity among their cytosine-recognizing components (MTase and S) suggest they have recently evolved, most likely from the far more common m6A Type I systems. Type I enzymes that modify cytosine exclusively were formed by replacing the adenine target recognition domain (TRD) with a cytosine-recognizing TRD. These are the first examples of m4C modification in Type I RM systems.© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of the thermotolerant acetic acid bacterium, Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108, provide a new insight into thermotolerance.

Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108 is a typical thermotolerant acetic acid bacterium. In this study, the complete genome sequence of the SKU1108 strain was elucidated, and information on genomic modifications due to the thermal adaptation of SKU1108 was updated. In order to obtain a clearer understanding of the genetic background responsible for thermotolerance, the SKU1108 genome was compared with those of two closely related complete genome strains, thermotolerant A. pasteurianus 386B and mesophilic A. pasteurianus NBRC 3283. All 24 “thermotolerant genes” required for growth at higher temperatures in the thermotolerant Acetobacter tropicalis SKU1100 strain were conserved in all three strains. However, these thermotolerant genes accumulated amino acid mutations. Some biased mutations, particularly those that occurred in xanthine dehydrogenase XdhA, may be related to thermotolerance. By aligning whole genome sequences, we identified ten SKU1108 strain-specific regions, three of which were conserved in the genomes of the two thermotolerant A. pasteurianus strains. One of the regions contained a unique paralog of the thermotolerant gene xdhA, which may also be responsible for conferring thermotolerance. Thus, comparative genomics of complete genome sequences may provide novel insights into the phenotypes of these thermotolerant strains.


July 7, 2019  |  

Novel methyltransferase recognition motif identified in Chania multitudinisentens RB-25(T) gen. nov., sp. nov.

DNA methylation, defined by the addition of a methyl group to adenine or cytosine bases in DNA catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (MTases), is one of the most studied post-replicative DNA modification mechanism in bacteria (Roberts et al., 2003b). The three forms of nucleotide methylation identified to date are: N6-methyladenine(m6A), N4-methylcytosine (m4C), and 5-methylcytosine (m5C) (Gromova and Khoroshaev, 2003).


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic analyses of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 resequenced by single-molecule real-time sequencing.

As a third-generation sequencing (TGS) method, single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology provides long read length, and it is well suited for resequencing projects and de novo assembly. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 was characterized and resequenced using SMRT technology. PA1 was also subjected to genomic, comparative and pan-genomic analyses. The multidrug resistant strain PA1 possesses a 6,498,072 bp genome and a sequence type of ST-782. The genome of PA1 was also visualized, and the results revealed the details of general genome annotations, virulence factors, regulatory proteins (RPs), secretion system proteins, type II toxin-antitoxin (T-A) pairs and genomic islands. Whole genome comparison analysis suggested that PA1 exhibits similarity to other P. aeruginosa strains but differs in terms of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) regions, such as prophages and genomic islands. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences demonstrated that PA1 is closely related to PAO1, and P. aeruginosa strains can be divided into two main groups. The pan-genome of P. aeruginosa consists of a core genome of approximately 4,000 genes and an accessory genome of at least 6,600 genes. The present study presented a detailed, visualized and comparative analysis of the PA1 genome, to enhance our understanding of this notorious pathogen. © 2016 The Author(s).


July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic insights into Campylobacter jejuni virulence and population genetics

Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a main food-borne pathogen in many parts of the world. Natural reservoirs include a wide variety of domestic and wild birds and mammals, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of the organism. Understanding the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of C. jejuni is vital to prevent and control Campylobacter-associated infections. The recent progress in sequencing techniques has allowed for a rapid increase in our knowledge of the molecular biology and the genetic structures of Campylobacter. Single-molecule realtime (SMRT) sequencing, which goes beyond four-base sequencing, revealed the role of DNA methylation in modulating the biology and virulence of C. jejuni at the level of epigenetics. In this review, we will provide an up-to-date review on recent advances in understanding C. jejuni genomics, including structural features of genomes, genetic traits of virulence, population genetics, and epigenetics.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of two Rhodobacter strains.

We report the complete genome sequences of two strains of the Alphaproteobacteria genus Rhodobacter, Rhodobacter blasticus 28/5, the source of the commercially available enzyme RsaI, and a new isolate of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. Both strains contain multiple restriction-modification systems, and their DNA methylation motifs are included in this report.


Talk with an expert

If you have a question, need to check the status of an order, or are interested in purchasing an instrument, we're here to help.