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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic sequencing-based mutational enrichment analysis identifies motility genes in a genetically intractable gut microbe.

A major roadblock to understanding how microbes in the gastrointestinal tract colonize and influence the physiology of their hosts is our inability to genetically manipulate new bacterial species and experimentally assess the function of their genes. We describe the application of population-based genomic sequencing after chemical mutagenesis to map bacterial genes responsible for motility in Exiguobacterium acetylicum, a representative intestinal Firmicutes bacterium that is intractable to molecular genetic manipulation. We derived strong associations between mutations in 57 E. acetylicum genes and impaired motility. Surprisingly, less than half of these genes were annotated as motility-related based on sequence homologies. We confirmed…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Origins of the current seventh cholera pandemic.

Vibrio cholerae has caused seven cholera pandemics since 1817, imposing terror on much of the world, but bacterial strains are currently only available for the sixth and seventh pandemics. The El Tor biotype seventh pandemic began in 1961 in Indonesia, but did not originate directly from the classical biotype sixth-pandemic strain. Previous studies focused mainly on the spread of the seventh pandemic after 1970. Here, we analyze in unprecedented detail the origin, evolution, and transition to pandemicity of the seventh-pandemic strain. We used high-resolution comparative genomic analysis of strains collected from 1930 to 1964, covering the evolution from the first…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Systems biology-guided biodesign of consolidated lignin conversion

Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer on the earth, yet its utilization for fungible products is complicated by its recalcitrant nature and remains a major challenge for sustainable lignocellulosic biorefineries. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to reveal the carbon utilization pattern and lignin degradation mechanisms in a unique lignin-utilizing Pseudomonas putida strain (A514). The mechanistic study further guided the design of three functional modules to enable a consolidated lignin bioconversion route. First, P. putida A514 mobilized a dye peroxidase-based enzymatic system for lignin depolymerization. This system could be enhanced by overexpressing a secreted multifunctional dye…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Cupriavidus malaysiensis sp. nov., a novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) accumulating bacterium isolated from the Malaysian environment.

Bacterial classification on the basis of a polyphasic approach was conducted on three poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] accumulating bacterial strains that were isolated from samples collected from Malaysian environments; Kulim Lake, Sg. Pinang river and Sg. Manik paddy field. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-sporulating and non-fermenting bacteria were shown to belong to the genus Cupriavidus of the Betaproteobacteria on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The sequence similarity value with their near phylogenetic neighbour, Cupriavidus pauculus LMG3413T, was 98.5%. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values (8-58%) and ribotyping analysis both enabled these strains to be differentiated from related Cupriavidus…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genomic analysis of multidrug-resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa Guangzhou-Pae617, the host of megaplasmid pBM413.

We previously described the novel qnrVC6 and blaIMP-45carrying megaplasmid pBM413. This study aimed to investigate the complete genome of multidrug-resistance P. aeruginosa Guangzhou-Pae617, a clinical isolate from the sputum of a patient who was suffering from respiratory disease in Guangzhou, China.The genome was sequenced using Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers and assembled de novo using HGAP. The genome was automatically and manually annotated.The genome of P. aeruginosa Guangzhou-Pae617 is 6,430,493 bp containing 5881 predicted genes with an average G + C content of 66.43%. The genome showed high similarity to two new sequenced P. aeruginosa strains isolated from New…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Oryza glaberrima Steud.

Oryza glaberrima is the African cultivated rice species, domesticated from its wild ancestor by farmers living in Inland Delta of Niger River. Several studies indicated that it has extremely narrow genetic diversity compared to both its wild progenitor, Oryza barthii and the Asian rice, Oryza sativa which can mainly be attributed to a severe domestication bottleneck. Despite its scarcity in farmer’s field due to its low yield potential, high shattering and lodging susceptibility, O. glaberrima is of great value not only to Africa but also globally. Perhaps its greatest contribution to regional and global food security is as a source…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Gapless genome assembly of the potato and tomato early blight pathogen Alternaria solani.

The Alternaria genus consists of saprophytic fungi as well as plant-pathogenic species that have significant economic impact. To date, the genomes of multiple Alternaria species have been sequenced. These studies have yielded valuable data for molecular studies on Alternaria fungi. However, most of the current Alternaria genome assemblies are highly fragmented, thereby hampering the identification of genes that are involved in causing disease. Here, we report a gapless genome assembly of A. solani, the causal agent of early blight in tomato and potato. The genome assembly is a significant step toward a better understanding of pathogenicity of A. solani.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a heavy metal resistant bacterium Maribacter cobaltidurans B1T, isolated from the deep-sea sediment of the South Atlantic Ocean

Many bacteria in the environment have adopted to the presence of toxic heavy metals. Here we present the complete genome sequence of a heavy metal resistant bacterium, Maribacter cobaltidurans B1T (=CGMCC 1.15508T=KCTC 52882T=MCCC 1K03318T), which was isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample collected from the South Atlantic Ocean. Strain B1T is able to resist high concentrations of Co2+ (10.0mM) in Marine Agar 2216. The genome of strain B1T comprises 4,639,957bp in a circular chromosome with G+C content of 39.7mol%. Resistance to Co2+ is mainly based on efflux system in the genome of stain B1T, including czcCBA operons, czcD genes, corC…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequencing to develop Paenibacillus donghaensis strain JH8T (KCTC 13049T=LMG 23780T) as a microbial fertilizer and correlation to its plant growth-promoting phenotype

Paenibacillus donghaensis JH8T (KCTC 13049T=LMG 23780T) is a Gram-positive, mesophilic, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from East Sea sediment at depth of 500m in Korea. The strain exhibited plant cell wall hydrolytic and plant growth promoting abilities. The complete genome of P. donghaensis strain JH8T contains 7602 protein-coding sequences and an average GC content of 49.7% in its chromosome (8.54Mbp). Genes encoding proteins related to the degradation of plant cell wall, nitrogen-fixation, phosphate solubilization, and synthesis of siderophore were existed in the P. donghaensis strain JH8T genome, indicating that this strain can be used as an eco-friendly microbial agent for increasing agricultural…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the sesame pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum strain SEPPX 05.

Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne phytopathogen associated with bacterial wilt disease of sesame. R. solanacearum is the predominant agent causing damping-off from tropical to temperate regions. Because bacterial wilt has decreased the sesame industry yield, we sequenced the SEPPX05 genome using PacBio and Illumina HiSeq 2500 systems and revealed that R. solanacearum strain SEPPX05 carries a bipartite genome consisting of a 3,930,849 bp chromosome and a 2,066,085 bp megaplasmid with 66.84% G+C content that harbors 5,427 coding sequences. Based on the whole genome, phylogenetic analysis showed that strain SEPPX05 is grouped with two phylotype I strains (EP1 and GMI1000). Pan-genomic analysis shows…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Host genetic variation strongly influences the microbiome structure and function in fungal fruiting-bodies.

Despite increasing knowledge on host-associated microbiomes, little is known about mechanisms underlying fungus-microbiome interactions. This study aimed to examine the relative importance of host genetic, geographic and environmental variations in structuring fungus-associated microbiomes. We analyzed the taxonomic composition and function of microbiomes inhabiting fungal fruiting-bodies in relation to host genetic variation, soil pH and geographic distance between samples. For this, we sequenced the metagenomes of 40 fruiting-bodies collected from six fairy rings (i.e., genets) of a saprotrophic fungus Marasmius oreades. Our analyses revealed that fine genetic variations between host fungi could strongly affect their associated microbiome, explaining, respectively, 25% and 37%…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

To B or not to B: a tale of unorthodox chromosomes.

Highlights • B chromosomes are dispensable parts of the karyotype of many eukaryotes. • Deemed genome parasites in plants and animals, provide advantage to pathogenic fungi. • Often enriched in repeats and in fast evolving pathogenicity-related genes. • B chromosomes are not a uniform class, share certain features with core chromosomes.

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