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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Chinese chestnut genome: a reference for species restoration

Forest tree species are increasingly subject to severe mortalities from exotic pests, diseases, and invasive organisms, accelerated by climate change. Forest health issues are threatening multiple species and ecosystem sustainability globally. While sources of resistance may be available in related species, or among surviving trees, introgression of resistance genes into threatened tree species in reasonable time frames requires genome-wide breeding tools. Asian species of chestnut (Castanea spp.) are being employed as donors of disease resistance genes to restore native chestnut species in North America and Europe. To aid in the restoration of threatened chestnut species, we present the assembly of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Chromosomal-level assembly of the blolsod clam, Scapharca (Anadara) broughtonii, using long sequence reads and Hi-C.

The blood clam, Scapharca (Anadara) broughtonii, is an economically and ecologically important marine bivalve of the family Arcidae. Efforts to study their population genetics, breeding, cultivation, and stock enrichment have been somewhat hindered by the lack of a reference genome. Herein, we report the complete genome sequence of S. broughtonii, a first reference genome of the family Arcidae.A total of 75.79 Gb clean data were generated with the Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore platforms, which represented approximately 86× coverage of the S. broughtonii genome. De novo assembly of these long reads resulted in an 884.5-Mb genome, with a contig N50…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Identification of Initial Colonizing Bacteria in Dental Plaques from Young Adults Using Full-Length 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing.

Development of dental plaque begins with the adhesion of salivary bacteria to the acquired pellicle covering the tooth surface. In this study, we collected in vivo dental plaque formed on hydroxyapatite disks for 6 h from 74 young adults and identified initial colonizing taxa based on full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. A long-read, single-molecule sequencer, PacBio Sequel, provided 100,109 high-quality full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence reads from the early plaque microbiota, which were assigned to 90 oral bacterial taxa. The microbiota obtained from every individual mostly comprised the 21 predominant taxa with the maximum relative abundance of over 10% (95.8?±?6.2%,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Divergent evolution in the genomes of closely related lacertids, Lacerta viridis and L. bilineata, and implications for speciation.

Lacerta viridis and Lacerta bilineata are sister species of European green lizards (eastern and western clades, respectively) that, until recently, were grouped together as the L. viridis complex. Genetic incompatibilities were observed between lacertid populations through crossing experiments, which led to the delineation of two separate species within the L. viridis complex. The population history of these sister species and processes driving divergence are unknown. We constructed the first high-quality de novo genome assemblies for both L. viridis and L. bilineata through Illumina and PacBio sequencing, with annotation support provided from transcriptome sequencing of several tissues. To estimate gene flow…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Amplification-free long-read sequencing of TCF4 expanded trinucleotide repeats in Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy.

Amplification of a CAG trinucleotide motif (CTG18.1) within the TCF4 gene has been strongly associated with Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). Nevertheless, a small minority of clinically unaffected elderly patients who have expanded CTG18.1 sequences have been identified. To test the hypothesis that the CAG expansions in these patients are protected from FECD because they have interruptions within the CAG repeats, we utilized a combination of an amplification-free, long-read sequencing method and a new target-enrichment sequence analysis tool developed by Pacific Biosciences to interrogate the sequence structure of expanded repeats. The sequencing was successful in identifying a previously described interruption…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long-read sequence and assembly of segmental duplications.

We have developed a computational method based on polyploid phasing of long sequence reads to resolve collapsed regions of segmental duplications within genome assemblies. Segmental Duplication Assembler (SDA; https://github.com/mvollger/SDA ) constructs graphs in which paralogous sequence variants define the nodes and long-read sequences provide attraction and repulsion edges, enabling the partition and assembly of long reads corresponding to distinct paralogs. We apply it to single-molecule, real-time sequence data from three human genomes and recover 33-79 megabase pairs (Mb) of duplications in which approximately half of the loci are diverged (99.9%) and that the diverged sequence corresponds to copy-number-variable paralogs that…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comprehensive evaluation of non-hybrid genome assembly tools for third-generation PacBio long-read sequence data.

Long reads obtained from third-generation sequencing platforms can help overcome the long-standing challenge of the de novo assembly of sequences for the genomic analysis of non-model eukaryotic organisms. Numerous long-read-aided de novo assemblies have been published recently, which exhibited superior quality of the assembled genomes in comparison with those achieved using earlier second-generation sequencing technologies. Evaluating assemblies is important in guiding the appropriate choice for specific research needs. In this study, we evaluated 10 long-read assemblers using a variety of metrics on Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) data sets from different taxonomic categories with considerable differences in genome size. The results allowed…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Inter-chromosomal coupling between vision and pigmentation genes during genomic divergence.

Recombination between loci underlying mate choice and ecological traits is a major evolutionary force acting against speciation with gene flow. The evolution of linkage disequilibrium between such loci is therefore a fundamental step in the origin of species. Here, we show that this process can take place in the absence of physical linkage in hamlets-a group of closely related reef fishes from the wider Caribbean that differ essentially in colour pattern and are reproductively isolated through strong visually-based assortative mating. Using full-genome analysis, we identify four narrow genomic intervals that are consistently differentiated among sympatric species in a backdrop of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genetic Variation, Comparative Genomics, and the Diagnosis of Disease.

The discovery of mutations associated with human genetic dis- ease is an exercise in comparative genomics (see Glossary). Although there are many different strategies and approaches, the central premise is that affected persons harbor a significant excess of pathogenic DNA variants as com- pared with a group of unaffected persons (controls) that is either clinically defined1 or established by surveying large swaths of the general population.2 The more exclu- sive the variant is to the disease, the greater its penetrance, the larger its effect size, and the more relevant it becomes to both disease diagnosis and future therapeutic investigation. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Efficiency of PacBio long read correction by 2nd generation Illumina sequencing.

Long sequencing reads offer unprecedented opportunities in analysis and reconstruction of complex genomic regions. However, the gain in sequence length is often traded for quality. Therefore, recently several approaches have been proposed (e.g. higher sequencing coverage, hybrid assembly or sequence correction) to enhance the quality of long sequencing reads. A simple and cost-effective approach includes use of the high quality 2nd generation sequencing data to improve the quality of long reads. We designed a dedicated testing procedure and selected universal programs for long read correction, which provide as the output sequences that can be used in further genomic and transcriptomic…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Whole genome sequence and de novo assembly revealed genomic architecture of Indian Mithun (Bos frontalis).

Mithun (Bos frontalis), also called gayal, is an endangered bovine species, under the tribe bovini with 2n?=?58 XX chromosome complements and reared under the tropical rain forests region of India, China, Myanmar, Bhutan and Bangladesh. However, the origin of this species is still disputed and information on its genomic architecture is scanty so far. We trust that availability of its whole genome sequence data and assembly will greatly solve this problem and help to generate many information including phylogenetic status of mithun. Recently, the first genome assembly of gayal, mithun of Chinese origin, was published. However, an improved reference genome…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Chromosome-level assembly of the water buffalo genome surpasses human and goat genomes in sequence contiguity.

Rapid innovation in sequencing technologies and improvement in assembly algorithms have enabled the creation of highly contiguous mammalian genomes. Here we report a chromosome-level assembly of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) genome using single-molecule sequencing and chromatin conformation capture data. PacBio Sequel reads, with a mean length of 11.5?kb, helped to resolve repetitive elements and generate sequence contiguity. All five B. bubalis sub-metacentric chromosomes were correctly scaffolded with centromeres spanned. Although the index animal was partly inbred, 58% of the genome was haplotype-phased by FALCON-Unzip. This new reference genome improves the contig N50 of the previous short-read based buffalo assembly…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

Webinar: New PacBio solutions for high-resolution microbiology & immunology analysis

PacBio sequencing has been recognized as the gold-standard in microbial sequencing due to simultaneously providing long sequence reads (genome contiguity), high consensus accuracy (genome accuracy), minimal sequence bias (genome completeness), and methylation detection (bacterial epigenome). In his talk Jonas Korlach, highlights new advances and updates on applying PacBio sequencing in microbiology, including multiplexed microbial sequencing on the Sequel System and full-length bacterial RNA sequencing. In the second part of his talk, he covers how the generation of high-accuracy, single-molecule consensus reads, through a process called circular consensus sequencing – a capability unique to PacBio sequencing technology – can be leveraged…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

AGBT Virtual Poster: Mind the gap – upgrading reference genomes with Pacific Biosciences RS long read sequencing technology

Adam English, lead bioinformatics programmer at Baylor College of Medicine, discusses challenges with resolving gaps in high-quality draft genome assemblies. Sequencing biases, repetitive genomic features, genomic polymorphism, and other complicating factors all come together to make some regions difficult or impossible to assemble. For more facile assembly and automated finishing of draft genomes, he presents an automated approach to finishing using long reads from the PacBio System. The tool PBJelly automates the finishing process using long sequence reads in a reference-guided assembly process. Using PBJelly and SMRT Sequencing, they upgraded the draft genome sequences of a simulated Drosophila melanogaster, the version…

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Monday, March 30, 2020

i5K Webinar: High-quality de novo insect genome assemblies using PacBio sequencing

PacBio Sequencing is characterized by very long sequence reads (averaging > 10,000 bases), lack of GC-bias, and high consensus accuracy. These features have allowed the method to provide a new gold standard in de novo genome assemblies, producing highly contiguous (contig N50 > 1 Mb) and accurate (> QV 50) genome assemblies. We will briefly describe the technology and then highlight the full workflow, from sample preparation through sequencing to data analysis, on examples of insect genome assemblies, and illustrate the difference these high-quality genomes represent with regard to biological insights, compared to fragmented draft assemblies generated by short-read sequencing.

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