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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome re-annotation of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca using extensive Illumina-and SMRT-based RNA-seq datasets

The genome of the wild diploid strawberry species Fragaria vesca, an ideal model system of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, octoploid) and other Rosaceae family crops, was first published in 2011 and followed by a new assembly (Fvb). However, the annotation for Fvb mainly relied on ab initio predictions and included only predicted coding sequences, therefore an improved annotation is highly desirable. Here, a new annotation version named v2.0.a2 was created for the Fvb genome by a pipeline utilizing one PacBio library, 90 Illumina RNA-seq libraries, and 9 small RNA-seq libraries. Altogether, 18,641 genes (55.6% out of 33,538 genes) were…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The first whole transcriptomic exploration of pre-oviposited early chicken embryos using single and bulked embryonic RNA-sequencing.

The chicken is a valuable model organism, especially in evolutionary and embryology research because its embryonic development occurs in the egg. However, despite its scientific importance, no transcriptome data have been generated for deciphering the early developmental stages of the chicken because of practical and technical constraints in accessing pre-oviposited embryos.Here, we determine the entire transcriptome of pre-oviposited avian embryos, including oocyte, zygote, and intrauterine embryos from Eyal-giladi and Kochav stage I (EGK.I) to EGK.X collected using a noninvasive approach for the first time. We also compare RNA-sequencing data obtained using a bulked embryo sequencing and single embryo/cell sequencing technique.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptome comparative analysis of salt stress responsiveness in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) roots by Illumina- and Single-Molecule Real-Time-based RNA sequencing.

Salt response has long been considered a polygenic-controlled character in plants. Under salt stress conditions, plants respond by activating a great amount of proteins and enzymes. To develop a better understanding of the molecular mechanism and screen salt responsive genes in chrysanthemum under salt stress, we performed the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on both salt-processed chrysanthemum seedling roots and the control group, and gathered six cDNA databases eventually. Moreover, to overcome the Illumina HiSeq technology’s limitation on sufficient length of reads and improve the quality and accuracy of the result, we combined Illumina HiSeq with single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT-seq) to decode…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptome characterization of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) seedlings in response to exogenous gibberellin applications.

Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a well-known bamboo species of high economic value in the textile industry due to its rapid growth. Phytohormones, which are master regulators of growth and development, serve as important endogenous signals. However, the mechanisms through which phytohormones regulate growth in moso bamboo remain unknown to date.Here, we reported that exogenous gibberellins (GA) applications resulted in a significantly increased internode length and lignin condensation. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that photosynthesis-related genes were enriched in the GA-repressed gene class, which was consistent with the decrease in leaf chlorophyll concentrations and the lower rate of photosynthesis following GA treatment.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Revealing the transcriptomic complexity of switchgrass by PacBio long-read sequencing.

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important bioenergy crop widely used for lignocellulosic research. While extensive transcriptomic analyses have been conducted on this species using short read-based sequencing techniques, very little has been reliably derived regarding alternatively spliced (AS) transcripts.We present an analysis of transcriptomes of six switchgrass tissue types pooled together, sequenced using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single-molecular long-read technology. Our analysis identified 105,419 unique transcripts covering 43,570 known genes and 8795 previously unknown genes. 45,168 are novel transcripts of known genes. A total of 60,096 AS transcripts are identified, 45,628 being novel. We have also predicted 1549 transcripts of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Long non-coding RNA identification: comparing machine learning based tools for long non-coding transcripts discrimination

Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of noncoding RNA with length more than 200 nucleotides, which aroused interest of people in recent years. Lots of studies have confirmed that human genome contains many thousands of lncRNAs which exert great influence over some critical regulators of cellular process. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, a great quantity of sequences is waiting for exploitation. Thus, many programs are developed to distinguish differences between coding and long noncoding transcripts. Different programs are generally designed to be utilised under different circumstances and it is sensible and practical to select an appropriate method…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Emergence, retention and selection: A trilogy of origination for functional de novo proteins from ancestral lncRNAs in primates.

While some human-specific protein-coding genes have been proposed to originate from ancestral lncRNAs, the transition process remains poorly understood. Here we identified 64 hominoid-specific de novo genes and report a mechanism for the origination of functional de novo proteins from ancestral lncRNAs with precise splicing structures and specific tissue expression profiles. Whole-genome sequencing of dozens of rhesus macaque animals revealed that these lncRNAs are generally not more selectively constrained than other lncRNA loci. The existence of these newly-originated de novo proteins is also not beyond anticipation under neutral expectation, as they generally have longer theoretical lifespan than their current age,…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Two novel lncRNAs discovered in human mitochondrial DNA using PacBio full-length transcriptome data.

In this study, we established a general framework to use PacBio full-length transcriptome sequencing for the investigation of mitochondrial RNAs. As a result, we produced the first full-length human mitochondrial transcriptome using public PacBio data and characterized the human mitochondrial genome with more comprehensive and accurate information. Other results included determination of the H-strand primary transcript, identification of the ND5/ND6AS/tRNAGluAS transcript, discovery of palindrome small RNAs (psRNAs) and construction of the “mitochondrial cleavage” model, etc. These results reported for the first time in this study fundamentally changed annotations of human mitochondrial genome and enriched knowledge in the field of animal…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The small peptide world in long noncoding RNAs.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides (nt) without coding potential. Over the past decade, tens of thousands of novel lncRNAs have been annotated in animal and plant genomes because of advanced high-throughput RNA sequencing technologies and with the aid of coding transcript classifiers. Further, a considerable number of reports have revealed the existence of stable, functional small peptides (also known as micropeptides), translated from lncRNAs. In this review, we discuss the methods of lncRNA classification, the investigations regarding their coding potential and the functional significance of the peptides they encode.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Unveiling the complexity of the maize transcriptome by single-molecule long-read sequencing.

Zea mays is an important genetic model for elucidating transcriptional networks. Uncertainties about the complete structure of mRNA transcripts limit the progress of research in this system. Here, using single-molecule sequencing technology, we produce 111,151 transcripts from 6 tissues capturing ~70% of the genes annotated in maize RefGen_v3 genome. A large proportion of transcripts (57%) represent novel, sometimes tissue-specific, isoforms of known genes and 3% correspond to novel gene loci. In other cases, the identified transcripts have improved existing gene models. Averaging across all six tissues, 90% of the splice junctions are supported by short reads from matched tissues. In…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

SMRT sequencing of full-length transcriptome of flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila (Selman and Vogt).

This study was aimed at generating the full-length transcriptome of flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila (Selman and Vogt) using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. Four developmental stages of A. hygrophila, including eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults were harvested for isolating total RNA. The mixed samples were used for SMRT sequencing to generate the full-length transcriptome. Based on the obtained transcriptome data, alternative splicing event, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis, coding sequence prediction, transcript functional annotation, and lncRNA prediction were performed. Total 9.45?Gb of clean reads were generated, including 335,045 reads of insert (ROI) and 158,085 full-length non-chimeric (FLNC) reads. Transcript clustering analysis…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High-throughput annotation of full-length long noncoding RNAs with capture long-read sequencing.

Accurate annotation of genes and their transcripts is a foundation of genomics, but currently no annotation technique combines throughput and accuracy. As a result, reference gene collections remain incomplete-many gene models are fragmentary, and thousands more remain uncataloged, particularly for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). To accelerate lncRNA annotation, the GENCODE consortium has developed RNA Capture Long Seq (CLS), which combines targeted RNA capture with third-generation long-read sequencing. Here we present an experimental reannotation of the GENCODE intergenic lncRNA populations in matched human and mouse tissues that resulted in novel transcript models for 3,574 and 561 gene loci, respectively. CLS approximately…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Generation and comparative analysis of full-length transcriptomes in sweetpotato and its putative wild ancestor I. trifida.

Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is one of the most important crops in many developing countries and provides a candidate source of bioenergy. However, neither high-quality reference genome nor large-scale full-length cDNA sequences for this outcrossing hexaploid are still lacking, which in turn impedes progress in research studies in sweetpotato functional genomics and molecular breeding. In this study, we apply a combination of second- and third-generation sequencing technologies to sequence full-length transcriptomes in sweetpotato and its putative ancestor I. trifida. In total, we obtained 53,861/51,184 high-quality transcripts, which includes 34,963/33,637 putative full-length cDNA sequences, from sweetpotato/I. trifida. Amongst, we identified…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Combination of novel and public RNA-seq datasets to generate an mRNA expression atlas for the domestic chicken.

The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) is widely used as a model in developmental biology and is also an important livestock species. We describe a novel approach to data integration to generate an mRNA expression atlas for the chicken spanning major tissue types and developmental stages, using a diverse range of publicly-archived RNA-seq datasets and new data derived from immune cells and tissues.Randomly down-sampling RNA-seq datasets to a common depth and quantifying expression against a reference transcriptome using the mRNA quantitation tool Kallisto ensured that disparate datasets explored comparable transcriptomic space. The network analysis tool Graphia was used to extract clusters…

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