In this study, we established a general framework to use PacBio full-length transcriptome sequencing for the investigation of mitochondrial RNAs. As a result, we produced the first full-length human mitochondrial transcriptome using public PacBio data and characterized the human mitochondrial genome with more comprehensive and accurate information. Other results included determination of the H-strand primary transcript, identification of the ND5/ND6AS/tRNAGluAS transcript, discovery of palindrome small RNAs (psRNAs) and construction of the "mitochondrial cleavage" model, etc. These results reported for the first time in this study fundamentally changed annotations of human mitochondrial genome and enriched knowledge in the field of animal mitochondrial studies. The most important finding was two novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of MDL1 and MDL1AS exist ubiquitously in animal mitochondrial genomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.