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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Early life stages of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) are sensitive to fish feed containing the anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron.

Increasing use of fish feed containing the chitin synthesis inhibiting anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron (DFB) in salmon aquaculture has raised concerns over its impact on coastal ecosystems. Larvae of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were exposed to DFB medicated feed under Control conditions (7.0?°C, pH 8.0) and under Ocean Acidification and Warming conditions (OAW, 9.5?°C and pH 7.6). Two weeks’ exposure to DFB medicated feed caused significantly increased mortality. The effect of OAW and DFB on mortality of shrimp larvae was additive; 10% mortality in Control, 35% in OAW, 66% in DFB and 92% in OAW?+?DFB. In OAW?+?DFB feeding and swimming activity…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A whole genome assembly of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and prediction of genes with roles in metabolism and sex determination.

Haematobia irritans, commonly known as the horn fly, is a globally distributed blood-feeding pest of cattle that is responsible for significant economic losses to cattle producers. Chemical insecticides are the primary means for controlling this pest but problems with insecticide resistance have become common in the horn fly. To provide a foundation for identification of genomic loci for insecticide resistance and for discovery of new control technology, we report the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the horn fly genome. The assembled genome is 1.14 Gb, comprising 76,616 scaffolds with N50 scaffold length of 23 Kb. Using RNA-Seq data, we have…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Modeling trophic dependencies and exchanges among insects’ bacterial symbionts in a host-simulated environment.

Individual organisms are linked to their communities and ecosystems via metabolic activities. Metabolic exchanges and co-dependencies have long been suggested to have a pivotal role in determining community structure. In phloem-feeding insects such metabolic interactions with bacteria enable complementation of their deprived nutrition. The phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) harbors an obligatory symbiotic bacterium, as well as varying combinations of facultative symbionts. This well-defined bacterial community in B. tabaci serves here as a case study for a comprehensive and systematic survey of metabolic interactions within the bacterial community and their associations with documented occurrences of bacterial combinations. We first…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comprehensive analysis of single molecule sequencing-derived complete genome and whole transcriptome of Hyposidra talaca nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

We sequenced the Hyposidra talaca NPV (HytaNPV) double stranded circular DNA genome using PacBio single molecule sequencing technology. We found that the HytaNPV genome is 139,089?bp long with a GC content of 39.6%. It encodes 141 open reading frames (ORFs) including the 37 baculovirus core genes, 25 genes conserved among lepidopteran baculoviruses, 72 genes known in baculovirus, and 7 genes unique to the HytaNPV genome. It is a group II alphabaculovirus that codes for the F protein and lacks the gp64 gene found in group I alphabaculovirus viruses. Using RNA-seq, we confirmed the expression of the ORFs identified in the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 regulates the level of indole-3-acetic acid synthesized from indole-3-acetonitrile.

Variovorax is a metabolically diverse genus of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that engages in mutually beneficial interactions between plants and microbes. Unlike most PGPR, Variovorax cannot synthesize the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via tryptophan. However, we found that V. boronicumulans strain CGMCC 4969 could produce IAA using indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as the precursor. Thus, in the present study, the IAA synthesis mechanism of V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 was investigated. V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 metabolized IAN to IAA through both a nitrilase-dependent pathway and a nitrile hydratase (NHase) and amidase-dependent pathway. Cobalt enhanced the metabolic flux via the NHase/amidase, by which IAN…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic analysis of the insect-killing fungus Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 as a biopesticide.

Insect-killing fungi have high potential in pest management. A deeper insight into the fungal genes at the whole genome level is necessary to understand the inter-species or intra-species genetic diversity of fungal genes, and to select excellent isolates. In this work, we conducted a whole genome sequencing of Beauveria bassiana (Bb) JEF-007 and characterized pathogenesis-related features and compared with other isolates including Bb ARSEF2860. A large number of Bb JEF-007 genes showed high identity with Bb ARSEF2860, but some genes showed moderate or low identity. The two Bb isolates showed a significant difference in vegetative growth, antibiotic-susceptibility, and virulence against…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Structural variants exhibit allelic heterogeneity and shape variation in complex traits

Despite extensive effort to reveal the genetic basis of complex phenotypic variation, studies typically explain only a fraction of trait heritability. It has been hypothesized that individually rare hidden structural variants (SVs) could account for a significant fraction of variation in complex traits. To investigate this hypothesis, we assembled 14 Drosophila melanogaster genomes and systematically identified more than 20,000 euchromatic SVs, of which ~40% are invisible to high specificity short read genotyping approaches. SVs are common in Drosophila genes, with almost one third of diploid individuals harboring an SV in genes larger than 5kb, and nearly a quarter harboring multiple…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of degradative Novosphingobium strains with special reference to the microcystin-degrading Novosphingobium sp. THN1

Bacteria in genus Novosphingobium associated with biodegradation of substrates are prevalent in environments such as lakes, soil, sea, wood and sediments. To better understand the characteristics linked to their wide distribution and metabolic versatility, we report the whole genome sequence of Novosphingobium sp. THN1, a microcystin-degrading strain previously isolated by Jiang et al. (2011) from cyanobacteria-blooming water samples from Lake Taihu, China. We performed a genomic comparison analysis of Novosphingobium sp. THN1 with 21 other degradative Novosphingobium strains downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using 16S rRNA genes, core genes, protein-coding sequences, and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multi-population genomic analysis of malaria parasites indicates local selection and differentiation at the gdv1 locus regulating sexual development.

Parasites infect hosts in widely varying environments, encountering diverse challenges for adaptation. To identify malaria parasite genes under locally divergent selection across a large endemic region with a wide spectrum of transmission intensity, genome sequences were obtained from 284 clinical Plasmodium falciparum infections from four newly sampled locations in Senegal, The Gambia, Mali and Guinea. Combining these with previous data from seven other sites in West Africa enabled a multi-population analysis to identify discrete loci under varying local selection. A genome-wide scan showed the most exceptional geographical divergence to be at the early gametocyte gene locus gdv1 which is essential…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Bacillus wiedmannii biovar thuringiensis: A specialized mosquitocidal pathogen with plasmids from diverse origins.

Bacillus cereus sensu lato also known as B. cereus group is composed of an ecologically diverse bacterial group with an increasing number of related species, some of which are medically or agriculturally important. Numerous e?orts have been undertaken to allow presumptive di?erentiation of B. cereus group species from one another. FCC41 is a Bacillus sp. strain toxic against mosquito species like Aedes aegypti, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) albifasciatus, Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex apicinus, some of them responsible for the transmission of vector-borne diseases. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of FCC41 strain, which consists of one circular chromosome and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic characterization reveals significant divergence within Chlorella sorokiniana (Chlorellales, Trebouxiophyceae)

Selection of highly productive algal strains is crucial for establishing economically viable biomass and biopro- duct cultivation systems. Characterization of algal genomes, including understanding strain-specific differences in genome content and architecture is a critical step in this process. Using genomic analyses, we demonstrate significant differences between three strains of Chlorella sorokiniana (strain 1228, UTEX 1230, and DOE1412). We found that unique, strain-specific genes comprise a substantial proportion of each genome, and genomic regions with> 80% local nucleotide identity constitute

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), a worldwide parasite of social bee colonies, provides insights into detoxification and herbivory.

The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida; ATUMI) is an invasive parasite of bee colonies. ATUMI feeds on both fruits and bee nest products, facilitating its spread and increasing its impact on honey bees and other pollinators. We have sequenced and annotated the ATUMI genome, providing the first genomic resources for this species and for the Nitidulidae, a beetle family that is closely related to the extraordinarily species-rich clade of beetles known as the Phytophaga. ATUMI thus provides a contrasting view as a neighbor for one of the most successful known animal groups.We present a robust genome assembly and a gene…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Glyphosate resistance and EPSPS gene duplication: Convergent evolution in multiple plant species.

One of the increasingly widespread mechanisms of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate is copy number variation (CNV) of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene. EPSPS gene duplication has been reported in eight weed species, ranging from 3-5 extra copies to more than 150 extra copies. In the case of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a section of >300 kb containing EPSPS and many other genes has been replicated and inserted at new loci throughout the genome, resulting in significant increase in total genome size. The replicated sequence contains several classes of mobile genetic elements including helitrons, raising the intriguing possibility of extra-chromosomal…

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