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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptome profiling using Illumina- and SMRT-based RNA-seq of hot pepper for in-depth understanding of genes involved in CMV infection.

Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is becoming an increasingly important vegetable crop in the world. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a destructive virus that can cause leaf distortion and fruit lesions, affecting pepper production. However, studies on the response to CMV infection in pepper at the transcriptional level are limited. In this study, the transcript profiles of pepper leaves after CMV infection were investigated using Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 2143 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at five different stages. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG analysis revealed that these DEGs were involved in the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing.

We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

De novo assembly of a Chinese soybean genome.

Soybean was domesticated in China and has become one of the most important oilseed crops. Due to bottlenecks in their introduction and dissemination, soybeans from different geographic areas exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Asia is the largest soybean market; therefore, a high-quality soybean reference genome from this area is critical for soybean research and breeding. Here, we report the de novo assembly and sequence analysis of a Chinese soybean genome for “Zhonghuang 13” by a combination of SMRT, Hi-C and optical mapping data. The assembled genome size is 1.025 Gb with a contig N50 of 3.46 Mb and a scaffold N50…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Improved high-quality genome assembly and annotation of Tibetan hulless barley

Background The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called textquotedblleftQingketextquotedblright in Chinese and textquotedblleftNetextquotedblright in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The Tibetan hulless barley in China has about 3500 years of cultivation history, mainly produced in Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and other areas. In addition, Tibetan hulless barley has rich nutritional value and outstanding health effects, including the beta glucan, dietary fiber, amylopectin, the contents of trace elements, which are higher than any other cereal crops.Findings Here, we reported an improved high-quality assembly of Tibetan hulless…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Bacterial microbiota composition of fermented fruit and vegetable juices (jiaosu) analyzed by single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing

Commercially manufactured ‘jiaosu’ (fermented fruit and vegetable juices) have gained popularity in Asia recently. Like other fermented products, they have a high microbial diversity and richness. However, no published study has yet described their microbiota composition. Thus, this work aimed to obtain the full-length 16S rRNA profiles of jiaosu using the PacBio single-molecule, real-time sequencing technology. We described the bacterial microbiota of three jiaosu products purchased from Taiwan and Japan. Bacterial sequences from all three samples distributed across seven different phyla, mainly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Forty-three genera were identified (e.g. Ochrobactrum, Lactobacillus, Mycobacterium, and Acinetobacter). Fifty- five species…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomes of 13 domesticated and wild rice relatives highlight genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza.

The genus Oryza is a model system for the study of molecular evolution over time scales ranging from a few thousand to 15 million years. Using 13 reference genomes spanning the Oryza species tree, we show that despite few large-scale chromosomal rearrangements rapid species diversification is mirrored by lineage-specific emergence and turnover of many novel elements, including transposons, and potential new coding and noncoding genes. Our study resolves controversial areas of the Oryza phylogeny, showing a complex history of introgression among different chromosomes in the young ‘AA’ subclade containing the two domesticated species. This study highlights the prevalence of functionally…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Sequence analysis of European maize inbred line F2 provides new insights into molecular and chromosomal characteristics of presence/absence variants.

Maize is well known for its exceptional structural diversity, including copy number variants (CNVs) and presence/absence variants (PAVs), and there is growing evidence for the role of structural variation in maize adaptation. While PAVs have been described in this important crop species, they have been only scarcely characterized at the sequence level and the extent of presence/absence variation and relative chromosomal landscape of inbred-specific regions remain to be elucidated.De novo genome sequencing of the French F2 maize inbred line revealed 10,044 novel genomic regions larger than 1 kb, making up 88 Mb of DNA, that are present in F2 but not in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Characterization and heterologous expression of the neoabyssomicin/abyssomicin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces koyangensis SCSIO 5802.

The deep-sea-derived microbe Streptomyces koyangensis SCSIO 5802 produces neoabyssomicins A-B (1-2) and abyssomicins 2 (3) and 4 (4). Neoabyssomicin A (1) augments human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication whereas abyssomicin 2 (3) selectively reactivates latent HIV and is also active against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Structurally, neoabyssomicins A-B constitute a new subtype within the abyssomicin family and feature unique structural traits characteristic of extremely interesting biosynthetic transformations.In this work, the biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) for the neoabyssomicins and abyssomicins, composed of 28 opening reading frames, was identified in S. koyangensis SCSIO 5802, and its role in neoabyssomicin/abyssomicin biosynthesis…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Bacterial artificial chromosome clones randomly selected for sequencing reveal genomic differences between soybean cultivars

This study pioneered the use of multiple technologies to combine the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) pooling strategy with high-throughput next- and third-generation sequencing technologies to analyse genomic difference. To understand the genetic background of the Chinese soybean cultivar N23601, we built a BAC library and sequenced 10 randomly selected clones followed by de novo assembly. Comparative analysis was conducted against the reference genome of Glycine max var. Williams 82 (2.0). Therefore, our result is an assessment of the reference genome. Our results revealed that 3517 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 662 insertion–deletions (InDels) occurred in ~1.2 Mb of the genomic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Induced salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass by a novel bacterium strain from the rhizosphere of a desert shrub Haloxylon ammodendron.

Drought and soil salinity reduce agricultural output worldwide. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance plant growth and augment plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.Haloxylon ammodendron, a C4 perennial succulent xerohalophyte shrub with excellent drought and salt tolerance, is naturally distributed in the desert area of northwest China. In our previous work, a bacterium strain numbered as M30-35 was isolated from the rhizosphere ofH. ammodendronin Tengger desert, Gansu province, northwest China. In current work, the effects of M30-35 inoculation on salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass were evaluated and its genome was sequenced to identify genes associated with plant growth promotion. Results…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by a novel endophytic Bacillus megaterium strain YJB3.

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a group of recalcitrant and hazardous organic compounds that pose a great threat to both ecosystem and human beings. A novel endophytic strain YJB3 that could utilize a wide range of PAEs as the sole carbon and energy sources for cell growth was isolated from Canna indica root tissue. It was identified as Bacillus megaterium based on morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence homology analysis. The degradation capability of the strain YJB3 was investigated by incubation in mineral salt medium containing di-n-butyl-phthalate (DBP), one of important PAEs under different environmental conditions, showing 82.5% of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Deciphering lignocellulose deconstruction by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus based on genomic and transcriptomic analyses.

Irpex lacteus is one of the most potent white rot fungi for biological pretreatment of lignocellulose for second biofuel production. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism involved in lignocellulose deconstruction, genomic and transcriptomic analyses were carried out for I. lacteus CD2 grown in submerged fermentation using ball-milled corn stover as the carbon source.Irpex lacteus CD2 efficiently decomposed 74.9% lignin, 86.3% cellulose, and 83.5% hemicellulose in corn stover within 9 days. Manganese peroxidases were rapidly induced, followed by accumulation of cellulase and hemicellulase. Genomic analysis revealed that I. lacteus CD2 possessed a complete set of lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system composed mainly of class…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Secretome analysis identifies potential pathogenicity/virulence factors of Tilletia indica, a quarantined fungal pathogen inciting Karnal bunt disease in wheat.

Tilletia indica is a smut fungus that incites Karnal bunt in wheat. It has been considered as quarantine pest in more than 70 countries. Despite its quarantine significance, there is meager knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Moreover, various disease management strategies have proven futile. Development of effective disease management strategy requires identification of pathogenicity/virulence factors. With this aim, the present study was conducted to compare the secretomes of T. indica isolates, that is, highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. About 120 and 95 protein spots were detected reproducibly in TiK and TiP secretome gel images. Nineteen…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Conserved genomic and amino acid traits of cold adaptation in subzero-growing Arctic permafrost bacteria.

Permafrost accounts for 27% of all soil ecosystems and harbors diverse microbial communities. Our understanding of microorganisms in permafrost, their activities and adaptations, remains limited. Using five subzero-growing (cryophilic) permafrost bacteria, we examined features of cold adaptation through comparative genomic analyses with mesophilic relatives. The cryophiles possess genes associated with cold adaptation, including cold shock proteins, RNA helicases, and oxidative stress and carotenoid synthesis enzymes. Higher abundances of genes associated with compatible solutes were observed, important for osmoregulation in permafrost brine veins. Most cryophiles in our study have higher transposase copy numbers than mesophiles. We investigated amino acid (AA) modifications…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide identification of simple sequence repeats and development of polymorphic SSR markers for genetic studies in tea plant (Camellia sinensis)

The tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops worldwide. The availability of complete genome sequences for the Camellia sinensis var. ‘Shuchazao’ has provided the opportunity to identify all types of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers by genome-wide scan. In this study, a total of 667,980 SSRs were identified in the ~?3.08 Gb genome, with an overall density of 216.88 SSRs/Mb. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant among microsatellites (72.25%), followed by trinucleotide repeats (15.35%), while the remaining SSRs accounted for less than 13%. The motif AG/CT (49.96%) and AT/TA (40.14%) were the most…

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