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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Integrated proteomics, genomics, metabolomics approaches reveal oxalic acid as pathogenicity factor in Tilletia indica inciting Karnal bunt disease of wheat.

Tilletia indica incites Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat. To date, no KB resistant wheat cultivar could be developed due to non-availability of potential biomarkers related to pathogenicity/virulence for screening of resistant wheat genotypes. The present study was carried out to compare the proteomes of T. indica highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. Twenty one protein spots consistently observed as up-regulated/differential in the TiK proteome were selected for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified sequences showed homology with fungal proteins playing essential role in plant infection and pathogen survival, including stress response, adhesion, fungal penetration, invasion, colonization, degradation of host cell…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-based evolutionary history of Pseudomonas spp.

Pseudomonas is a large and diverse genus of Gammaproteobacteria. To provide a framework for discovery of evolutionary and taxonomic relationships of these bacteria, we compared the genomes of type strains of 163 species and 3 additional subspecies of Pseudomonas, including 118 genomes sequenced herein. A maximum likelihood phylogeny of the 166 type strains based on protein sequences of 100 single-copy orthologous genes revealed thirteen groups of Pseudomonas, composed of two to sixty three species each. Pairwise average nucleotide identities and alignment fractions were calculated for the data set of the 166 type strains and 1224 genomes of Pseudomonas available in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Assembly of chromosome-scale contigs by efficiently resolving repetitive sequences with long reads

Due to the large number of repetitive sequences in complex eukaryotic genomes, fragmented and incompletely assembled genomes lose value as reference sequences, often due to short contigs that cannot be anchored or mispositioned onto chromosomes. Here we report a novel method Highly Efficient Repeat Assembly (HERA), which includes a new concept called a connection graph as well as algorithms for constructing the graph. HERA resolves repeats at high efficiency with single-molecule sequencing data, and enables the assembly of chromosome-scale contigs by further integrating genome maps and Hi-C data. We tested HERA with the genomes of rice R498, maize B73, human…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Saliniramus fredricksonii gen. nov., sp. nov., a heterotrophic halophile isolated from Hot Lake, Washington, a member of a novel lineage (Salinarimonadaceae fam. nov.) within the order Rhizobiales, and reclassification of the genus Salinarimonas Liu et al. 2010 into Salinarimonadaceae.

There was an error in the proposed genus name in the published article, in that the genus ‘Salinivirga’ was effectively published while this article was in review. Therefore, the genus ‘Salinivirga’ should be replaced with ‘Saliniramus’. For the convenience of future readers, we have included the complete corrected article below, in which all occurrences of the incorrect genus name have been amended: A halophilic bacterial strain, HL-109T, was isolated from the unicyanobacterial consortium UCC-O, which was obtained from the photosynthetic mat of Hot Lake (Washington, USA). A polyphasic approach using phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data was used to classify the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics provides insights into the marine adaptation in sponge-derived Kocuriaflava S43.

Sponge-derived actinomycetes represent a significant component of marine actinomycetes. Members of the genus Kocuria are distributed in various habitats such as soil, rhizosphere, clinical specimens, marine sediments, and sponges, however, to date, little is known about the mechanism of their environmental adaptation. Kocuria flava S43 was isolated from a coastal sponge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it was closely related to the terrestrial airborne K. flava HO-9041. In this study, to gain insights into the marine adaptation in K. flava S43 we sequenced the draft genome for K. flava S43 by third generation sequencing (TGS) and compared it with those of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

De novo genome assembly of Oryza granulata reveals rapid genome expansion and adaptive evolution

The wild relatives of rice have adapted to different ecological environments and constitute a useful reservoir of agronomic traits for genetic improvement. Here we present the ~777?Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza granulata. Recent bursts of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons, especially RIRE2, led to a rapid twofold increase in genome size after O. granulata speciation. Universal centromeric tandem repeats are absent within its centromeres, while gypsy-type LTRs constitute the main centromere-specific repetitive elements. A total of 40,116 protein-coding genes were predicted in O. granulata, which is close to that of Oryza sativa. Both the copy number and function of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of Pseudomonas syringae reveals convergent gene gain and loss associated with specialization onto cherry (Prunus avium).

Genome-wide analyses of the effector- and toxin-encoding genes were used to examine the phylogenetics and evolution of pathogenicity amongst diverse strains of Pseudomonas syringae causing bacterial canker of cherry (Prunus avium), including pathovars P. syringae pv morsprunorum (Psm) races 1 and 2, P. syringae pv syringae (Pss) and P. syringae pv avii. Phylogenetic analyses revealed Psm races and P. syringae pv avii clades were distinct and were each monophyletic, whereas cherry-pathogenic strains of Pss were interspersed amongst strains from other host species. A maximum likelihood approach was used to predict effectors associated with pathogenicity on cherry. Pss possesses a smaller repertoire of type III…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole-genome sequence and genome annotation of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, causal agent of bacterial black spot on Mangifera indica.

A newly isolated strain XC01 was identified as Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, isolated from an infected mango fruit in Guangxi, China. The complete genome sequence of XC01 was carried out using the PacBio RSII platform. The genome contains a circular chromosome with 3,865,165 bp, 3442 protein-coding genes, 53 tRNAs, and 2 rRNA operons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the soybeans bacterial pustule pathogen X. citri pv. glycines CFBP 2526, with a completely different host range. The genome sequence of XC01 may shed a highlight genes with a demonstrated or proposed role in on the pathogenesis.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A pathogenesis-related 10 protein catalyzes the final step in thebaine biosynthesis.

The ultimate step in the formation of thebaine, a pentacyclic opiate alkaloid readily converted to the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine in the opium poppy, has long been presumed to be a spontaneous reaction. We have detected and purified a novel enzyme from opium poppy latex that is capable of the efficient formation of thebaine from (7S)-salutaridinol 7-O-acetate at the expense of labile hydroxylated byproducts, which are preferentially produced by spontaneous allylic elimination. Remarkably, thebaine synthase (THS), a member of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein (PR10) superfamily, is encoded within a novel gene cluster in the opium poppy genome that also…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Hotspots of independent and multiple rounds of LTR-retrotransposon bursts in Brassica species

Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are a predominant group of plant transposable elements (TEs) that are an important component of plant genomes. A large number of LTR-RTs have been annotated in the genomes of the agronomically important oil and vegetable crops of the genus Brassica. Herein, full-length LTR-RTs in the genomes of Brassica and other closely related species were systematically analyzed. The full-length LTR-RT content varied greatly (from 0.43% to 23.4%) between different species, with Gypsy-like LTR-RTs constituting a primary group across these genomes. More importantly, many annotated LTR-RTs (from 10.03% to 33.25% of all detected LTR-RTs) were found to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Basidiomycete edible fungus Hypsizygus marmoreus

The complete mitochondrial genome of the edible fungus Hypsizygus marmoreus was published in this paper. It was determined using Pacbio and Illumina sequencing. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is 106,417?bp in length with a GC content of 31.74%, which was the fourth large mitogenome in Agaricales. The circular mitogenome encoded 67 protein-coding genes and one ribosomal RNAs (rns). Among these genes, 13 conserved protein-coding genes were determined in the genome, including 6 subunits of NAD dehydrogenase (nad1-4, 4L and 6), three cytochrome oxidases (cox1-3), one apocytochrome b (cob) and three ATP synthases (atp6, apt 8 and apt 9). The phylogenic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A chromosome scale assembly of the model desiccation tolerant grass Oropetium thomaeum

Oropetium thomaeum is an emerging model for desiccation tolerance and genome size evolution in grasses. A high-quality draft genome of Oropetium was recently sequenced, but the lack of a chromosome scale assembly has hindered comparative analyses and downstream functional genomics. Here, we reassembled Oropetium, and anchored the genome into ten chromosomes using Hi-C based chromatin interactions. A combination of high-resolution RNAseq data and homology-based gene prediction identified thousands of new, conserved gene models that were absent from the V1 assembly. This includes thousands of new genes with high expression across a desiccation timecourse. The sorghum and Oropetium genomes have a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A reference genome of the Chinese hamster based on a hybrid assembly strategy.

Accurate and complete genome sequences are essential in biotechnology to facilitate genome-based cell engineering efforts. The current genome assemblies for Cricetulus griseus, the Chinese hamster, are fragmented and replete with gap sequences and misassemblies, consistent with most short-read-based assemblies. Here, we completely resequenced C. griseus using single molecule real time sequencing and merged this with Illumina-based assemblies. This generated a more contiguous and complete genome assembly than either technology alone, reducing the number of scaffolds by >28-fold, with 90% of the sequence in the 122 longest scaffolds. Most genes are now found in single scaffolds, including up- and downstream regulatory…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

High genomic variability in the plant pathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium parmentieri deciphered from de novo assembled complete genomes.

Pectobacterium parmentieri is a newly established species within the plant pathogenic family Pectobacteriaceae. Bacteria belonging to this species are causative agents of diseases in economically important crops (e.g. potato) in a wide range of different environmental conditions, encountered in Europe, North America, Africa, and New Zealand. Severe disease symptoms result from the activity of P. parmentieri virulence factors, such as plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Interestingly, we observe significant phenotypic differences among P. parmentieri isolates regarding virulence factors production and the abilities to macerate plants. To establish the possible genomic basis of these differences, we sequenced 12 genomes of P.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Deletions linked to PROG1 gene participate in plant architecture domestication in Asian and African rice.

Improving the yield by modifying plant architecture was a key step during crop domestication. Here, we show that a 110-kb deletion on the short arm of chromosome 7 in Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), which is closely linked to the previously identified PROSTRATE GROWTH 1 (PROG1) gene, harbors a tandem repeat of seven zinc-finger genes. Three of these genes regulate the plant architecture, suggesting that the deletion also promoted the critical transition from the prostrate growth and low yield of wild rice (O. rufipogon) to the erect growth and high yield of Asian cultivated rice. We refer to this locus…

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