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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Global identification of alternative splicing via comparative analysis of SMRT- and Illumina-based RNA-seq in strawberry.

Alternative splicing (AS) is a key post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, yet little information is known about its roles in fruit crops. Here, AS was globally analyzed in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca genome with RNA-seq data derived from different stages of fruit development. The AS landscape was characterized and compared between the single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) and Illumina RNA-seq platform. While SMRT has a lower sequencing depth, it identifies more genes undergoing AS (57.67% of detected multiexon genes) when it is compared with Illumina (33.48%), illustrating the efficacy of SMRT in AS identification. We investigated different modes of AS in the context…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A novel enrichment strategy reveals unprecedented number of novel transcription start sites at single base resolution in a model prokaryote and the gut microbiome.

The initiating nucleotide found at the 5′ end of primary transcripts has a distinctive triphosphorylated end that distinguishes these transcripts from all other RNA species. Recognizing this distinction is key to deconvoluting the primary transcriptome from the plethora of processed transcripts that confound analysis of the transcriptome. The currently available methods do not use targeted enrichment for the 5’end of primary transcripts, but rather attempt to deplete non-targeted RNA.We developed a method, Cappable-seq, for directly enriching for the 5′ end of primary transcripts and enabling determination of transcription start sites at single base resolution. This is achieved by enzymatically modifying…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Long-read based assembly and annotation of a Drosophila simulans genome

Long-read sequencing technologies enable high-quality, contiguous genome assemblies. Here we used SMRT sequencing to assemble the genome of a Drosophila simulans strain originating from Madagascar, the ancestral range of the species. We generated 8 Gb of raw data (~50x coverage) with a mean read length of 6,410 bp, a NR50 of 9,125 bp and the longest subread at 49 kb. We benchmarked six different assemblers and merged the best two assemblies from Canu and Falcon. Our final assembly was 127.41 Mb with a N50 of 5.38 Mb and 305 contigs. We anchored more than 4 Mb of novel sequence to…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Full-length isoform sequencing reveals novel transcripts and substantial transcriptional overlaps in a herpesvirus.

Whole transcriptome studies have become essential for understanding the complexity of genetic regulation. However, the conventionally applied short-read sequencing platforms cannot be used to reliably distinguish between many transcript isoforms. The Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RS II platform is capable of reading long nucleic acid stretches in a single sequencing run. The pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an excellent system to study herpesvirus gene expression and potential interactions between the transcriptional units. In this work, non-amplified and amplified isoform sequencing protocols were used to characterize the poly(A+) fraction of the lytic transcriptome of PRV, with the aim of a complete transcriptional annotation…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Transcriptional diversity during lineage commitment of human blood progenitors.

Blood cells derive from hematopoietic stem cells through stepwise fating events. To characterize gene expression programs driving lineage choice, we sequenced RNA from eight primary human hematopoietic progenitor populations representing the major myeloid commitment stages and the main lymphoid stage. We identified extensive cell type-specific expression changes: 6711 genes and 10,724 transcripts, enriched in non-protein-coding elements at early stages of differentiation. In addition, we found 7881 novel splice junctions and 2301 differentially used alternative splicing events, enriched in genes involved in regulatory processes. We demonstrated experimentally cell-specific isoform usage, identifying nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) as a regulator of megakaryocyte maturation-the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Identification of differentially expressed splice variants by the proteogenomic pipeline Splicify.

Proteogenomics, i.e. comprehensive integration of genomics and proteomics data, is a powerful approach identifying novel protein biomarkers. This is especially the case for proteins that differ structurally between disease and control conditions. As tumor development is associated with aberrant splicing, we focus on this rich source of cancer specific biomarkers. To this end, we developed a proteogenomic pipeline, Splicify, which is able to detect differentially expressed protein isoforms. Splicify is based on integrating RNA massive parallel sequencing data and tandem mass spectrometry proteomics data to identify protein isoforms resulting from differential splicing between two conditions. Proof of concept was obtained…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multi-platform analysis reveals a complex transcriptome architecture of a circovirus.

In this study, we used Pacific Biosciences RS II long-read and Illumina HiScanSQ short-read sequencing technologies for the characterization of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1) transcripts. Our aim was to identify novel RNA molecules and transcript isoforms, as well as to determine the exact 5′- and 3′-end sequences of previously described transcripts with single base-pair accuracy. We discovered a novel 3′-UTR length isoform of the Cap transcript, and a non-spliced Cap transcript variant. Additionally, our analysis has revealed a 3′-UTR isoform of Rep and two 5′-UTR isoforms of Rep’ transcripts, and a novel splice variant of the longer Rep’ transcript.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multi-platform sequencing approach reveals a novel transcriptome profile in pseudorabies virus.

Third-generation sequencing is an emerging technology that is capable of solving several problems that earlier approaches were not able to, including the identification of transcripts isoforms and overlapping transcripts. In this study, we used long-read sequencing for the analysis of pseudorabies virus (PRV) transcriptome, including Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION, PacBio RS-II, and Illumina HiScanSQ platforms. We also used data from our previous short-read and long-read sequencing studies for the comparison of the results and in order to confirm the obtained data. Our investigations identified 19 formerly unknown putative protein-coding genes, all of which are 5′ truncated forms of earlier annotated…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genome and transcriptome analysis reveals distinctive surface characteristics and unique physiological potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four draft genomes of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 have been sequenced, the complete genome of this strain is still lacking, hindering a comprehensive understanding of its physiology and functional genome.Here we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 using the Pacific Biosciences SMRT (PacBio) technology and Illumina sequencing platform. We found that accessory genes of ATCC 27853 including prophages and genomic…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Young genes have distinct gene structure, epigenetic profiles, and transcriptional regulation.

Species-specific, new, or “orphan” genes account for 10%-30% of eukaryotic genomes. Although initially considered to have limited function, an increasing number of orphan genes have been shown to provide important phenotypic innovation. How new genes acquire regulatory sequences for proper temporal and spatial expression is unknown. Orphan gene regulation may rely in part on origination in open chromatin adjacent to preexisting promoters, although this has not yet been assessed by genome-wide analysis of chromatin states. Here, we combine taxon-rich nematode phylogenies with Iso-Seq, RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, and ATAC-seq to identify the gene structure and epigenetic signature of orphan genes in the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The state of play in higher eukaryote gene annotation.

A genome sequence is worthless if it cannot be deciphered; therefore, efforts to describe – or ‘annotate’ – genes began as soon as DNA sequences became available. Whereas early work focused on individual protein-coding genes, the modern genomic ocean is a complex maelstrom of alternative splicing, non-coding transcription and pseudogenes. Scientists – from clinicians to evolutionary biologists – need to navigate these waters, and this has led to the design of high-throughput, computationally driven annotation projects. The catalogues that are being produced are key resources for genome exploration, especially as they become integrated with expression, epigenomic and variation data sets.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

SuperTranscripts: a data driven reference for analysis and visualisation of transcriptomes.

Numerous methods have been developed to analyse RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data, but most rely on the availability of a reference genome, making them unsuitable for non-model organisms. Here we present superTranscripts, a substitute for a reference genome, where each gene with multiple transcripts is represented by a single sequence. The Lace software is provided to construct superTranscripts from any set of transcripts, including de novo assemblies. We demonstrate how superTranscripts enable visualisation, variant detection and differential isoform detection in non-model organisms. We further use Lace to combine reference and assembled transcriptomes for chicken and recover hundreds of gaps in the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Somatic APP gene recombination in Alzheimer’s disease and normal neurons.

The diversity and complexity of the human brain are widely assumed to be encoded within a constant genome. Somatic gene recombination, which changes germline DNA sequences to increase molecular diversity, could theoretically alter this code but has not been documented in the brain, to our knowledge. Here we describe recombination of the Alzheimer’s disease-related gene APP, which encodes amyloid precursor protein, in human neurons, occurring mosaically as thousands of variant ‘genomic cDNAs’ (gencDNAs). gencDNAs lacked introns and ranged from full-length cDNA copies of expressed, brain-specific RNA splice variants to myriad smaller forms that contained intra-exonic junctions, insertions, deletions, and/or single…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Fusion of TTYH1 with the C19MC microRNA cluster drives expression of a brain-specific DNMT3B isoform in the embryonal brain tumor ETMR.

Embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) are rare, deadly pediatric brain tumors characterized by high-level amplification of the microRNA cluster C19MC. We performed integrated genetic and epigenetic analyses of 12 ETMR samples and identified, in all cases, C19MC fusions to TTYH1 driving expression of the microRNAs. ETMR tumors, cell lines and xenografts showed a specific DNA methylation pattern distinct from those of other tumors and normal tissues. We detected extreme overexpression of a previously uncharacterized isoform of DNMT3B originating at an alternative promoter that is active only in the first weeks of neural tube development. Transcriptional and immunohistochemical analyses suggest…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome re-annotation of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca using extensive Illumina-and SMRT-based RNA-seq datasets

The genome of the wild diploid strawberry species Fragaria vesca, an ideal model system of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, octoploid) and other Rosaceae family crops, was first published in 2011 and followed by a new assembly (Fvb). However, the annotation for Fvb mainly relied on ab initio predictions and included only predicted coding sequences, therefore an improved annotation is highly desirable. Here, a new annotation version named v2.0.a2 was created for the Fvb genome by a pipeline utilizing one PacBio library, 90 Illumina RNA-seq libraries, and 9 small RNA-seq libraries. Altogether, 18,641 genes (55.6% out of 33,538 genes) were…

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