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Friday, February 26, 2021

Sequencing of expanded CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene.

Alleles of the FMR1 gene with more than 200 CGG repeats generally undergo methylation-coupled gene silencing, resulting in fragile X syndrome, the leading heritable form of cognitive impairment. Smaller expansions (55-200 CGG repeats) result in elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA, which is directly responsible for the late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). For mechanistic studies and genetic counseling, it is important to know with precision the number of CGG repeats; however, no existing DNA sequencing method is capable of sequencing through more than ~100 CGG repeats, thus limiting the ability to precisely characterize the disease-causing alleles. The recent…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing sensitively detects polyclonal and compound BCR-ABL in patients who relapse on kinase inhibitor therapy.

Secondary kinase domain (KD) mutations are the most well-recognized mechanism of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and other cancers. In some cases, multiple drug resistant KD mutations can coexist in an individual patient (“polyclonality”). Alternatively, more than one mutation can occur in tandem on a single allele (“compound mutations”) following response and relapse to sequentially administered TKI therapy. Distinguishing between these two scenarios can inform the clinical choice of subsequent TKI treatment. There is currently no clinically adaptable methodology that offers the ability to distinguish polyclonal from compound mutations. Due to the size of…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Evaluating the potential of new sequencing technologies for genotyping and variation discovery in human data.

A first look at Pacific Biosciences RS data Pacific Biosciences technology provides a fundamentally new data type that provides the potential to overcome these limitations by providing significantly longer reads (now averaging >1kb), enabling more unique seeds for reference alignment. In addition, the lack of amplification in the library construction step avoids a common source of base composition bias. With these potential advantages in mind, we here evaluate the utility of the Pacific Biosciences RS platform for human medical resequencing projects by assessing the quality of the raw sequencing data, as well as its use for SNP discovery and genotyping…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

SMRT Sequencing of whole mitochondrial genomes and its utility in association studies of metabolic disease.

In this study we demonstrate the utility of Single-Molecule Real Time SMRT sequencing to detect variants and to recapitulate whole mitochondrial genomes in an association study of Metabolic syndrome using samples from a well-studied cohort from Micronesia. The Micronesian island of Kosrae is a rare genetic isolate that offers significant advantages for genetic studies of human disease. Kosrae suffers from one of the highest rates of MetS (41%), obesity (52%), and diabetes (17%) globally and has a homogeneous environment making this an excellent population in which to study these significant health problems. We are conducting family-based association analyses aimed at…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Direct sequencing and identification of damaged DNA bases.

DNA is under constant stress from both endogenous and exogenous sources. DNA base modifications resulting from various types of DNA damage are wide-spread and play important roles in affecting physiological states and disease phenotypes. Examples include oxidative damage (8- oxoguanine, 8-oxoadenine; aging, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s), alkylation (1-methyladenine, 6-O- methylguanine; cancer), adduct formation (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), pyrimidine dimers; smoking, industrial chemical exposure, chemical UV light exposure, cancer), and ionizing radiation damage (5-hydroxycytosine, 5- hydroxyuracil, 5-hydroxymethyluracil; cancer). Currently, these and other products of DNA damage cannot be sequenced with existing sequencing methods. In contrast, single molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing can report…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Sequencing and de novo assembly of the 17q21.31 disease associated region using long reads generated by Pacific Biosciences SMRT Sequencing technology.

Assessment of genome-wide variation revealed regions of the genome with complex, structurally diverse haplotypes that are insufficiently represented in the human reference genome. The 17q21.31 region is one of the most dynamic and complex regions of the human genome. Different haplotypes exist, in direct and inverted orientation, showing evidence of positive selection and predisposing to microdeletion associated with mental retardation. Sequencing of different haplotypes is extremely important to characterize the spectrum of structural variation at this locus. However, de novo assembly with second-generation sequencing reads is still problematic. Using PacBio technology we have sequenced and de novo assembled a tiling…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Comparative genomics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O145:H28 strains associated with the 2007 Belgium and 2010 US outbreaks.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an emerging pathogen. Recently there has been a global in the number of outbreaks caused by non-O157 STECs, typically involving six serogroups O26, O45, 0103, 0111, and 0145. STEC O145:H28 has been associated with severe human disease including hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), and is demonstrated by the 2007 Belgian ice-cream-associated outbreak and 2010 US lettuce-associated outbreak, with over 10% of patients developing HUS in each. The goal of this work was to do comparative genomics of strains, clinical and environmental, to investigate genome diversity and virulence evolution of this important foodborne pathogen.

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Complete HIV-1 genomes from single molecules: Diversity estimates in two linked transmission pairs using clustering and mutual information.

We sequenced complete HIV-1 genomes from single molecules using Single Molecule, Real- Time (SMRT) Sequencing and derive de novo full-length genome sequences. SMRT sequencing yields long-read sequencing results from individual DNA molecules with a rapid time-to-result. These attributes make it a useful tool for continuous monitoring of viral populations. The single-molecule nature of the sequencing method allows us to estimate variant subspecies and relative abundances by counting methods. We detail mathematical techniques used in viral variant subspecies identification including clustering distance metrics and mutual information. Sequencing was performed in order to better understand the relationships between the specific sequences of…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing of genes implicated in autosomal recessive diseases.

In today’s clinical diagnostic laboratories, the detection of the disease causing mutations is either done through genotyping or Sanger sequencing. Whether done singly or in a multiplex assay, genotyping works only if the exact molecular change is known. Sanger sequencing is the gold standard method that captures both known and novel molecular changes in the disease gene of interest. Most clinical Sanger sequencing assays involve PCR-amplifying the coding sequences of the disease target gene followed by bi-directional sequencing of the amplified products. Therefore for every patient sample, one generates multiple amplicons singly and each amplicon leads to two separate sequencing…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Genomic Architecture of the KIR and MHC-B and -C Regions in Orangutan

PacBio 2013 User Group Meeting Presentation Slides: Lisbeth Guethlein from Stanford University School of Medicine looked at highly repetitive and variable immune regions of the orangutan genome. Guethlein reported that “PacBio managed to accomplish in a week what I have been working on for a couple years” (with Sanger sequencing), and the results were concordant. “Long story short, I was a happy customer.”

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Allele-level sequencing and phasing of full-length HLA class I and II genes using SMRT Sequencing technology

The three classes of genes that comprise the MHC gene family are actively involved in determining donor-recipient compatibility for organ transplant, as well as susceptibility to autoimmune diseases via cross-reacting immunization. Specifically, Class I genes HLA-A, -B, -C, and class II genes HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP are considered medically important for genetic analysis to determine histocompatibility. They are highly polymorphic and have thousands of alleles implicated in disease resistance and susceptibility. The importance of full-length HLA gene sequencing for genotyping, detection of null alleles, and phasing is now widely acknowledged. While DNA-sequencing-based HLA genotyping has become routine, only 7% of…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

Using whole exome sequencing and bacterial pathogen sequencing to investigate the genetic basis of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections.

Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) infections occur in patients with chronic lung disease, but also in a distinct group of elderly women without lung defects who share a common body morphology: tall and lean with scoliosis, pectus excavatum, and mitral valve prolapse. In order to characterize the human host susceptibility to PNTM, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) of 44 individuals in extended families of patients with active PNTM as well as 55 additional unrelated individuals with PNTM. This unique collection of familial cohorts in PNTM represents an important opportunity for a high yield search for genes that regulate mucosal immunity.…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

New discoveries from closing Salmonella genomes using Pacific Biosciences continuous long reads.

The newer hierarchical genome assembly process (HGAP) performs de novo assembly using data from a single PacBio long insert library. To assess the benefits of this method, DNA from several Salmonella enterica serovars was isolated from a pure culture. Genome sequencing was performed using Pacific Biosciences RS sequencing technology. The HGAP process enabled us to close sixteen Salmonella subsp. enterica genomes and their associated mobile elements: The ten serotypes include: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) S. Bareilly, S. Heidelberg, S. Cubana, S. Javiana and S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Montevideo, S. Agona, and S. Tennessee. In addition,…

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Friday, February 26, 2021

A novel analytical pipeline for de novo haplotype phasing and amplicon analysis using SMRT Sequencing technology.

While the identification of individual SNPs has been readily available for some time, the ability to accurately phase SNPs and structural variation across a haplotype has been a challenge. With individual reads of an average length of 9 kb (P5-C3), and individual reads beyond 30 kb in length, SMRT Sequencing technology allows the identification of mutation combinations such as microdeletions, insertions, and substitutions without any predetermined reference sequence. Long- amplicon analysis is a novel protocol that identifies and reports the abundance of differing clusters of sequencing reads within a single library. Graphs generated via hierarchical clustering of individual sequencing reads…

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