April 21, 2020  |  

Genome-wide selection footprints and deleterious variations in young Asian allotetraploid rapeseed.

Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38) is an important oilseed crop grown worldwide. However, little is known about the population evolution of this species, the genomic difference between its major genetic groups, such as European and Asian rapeseed, and the impacts of historical large-scale introgression events on this young tetraploid. In this study, we reported the de novo assembly of the genome sequences of an Asian rapeseed (B. napus), Ningyou 7, and its four progenitors and compared these genomes with other available genomic data from diverse European and Asian cultivars. Our results showed that Asian rapeseed originally derived from European rapeseed but subsequently significantly diverged, with rapid genome differentiation after hybridization and intensive local selective breeding. The first historical introgression of B. rapa dramatically broadened the allelic pool but decreased the deleterious variations of Asian rapeseed. The second historical introgression of the double-low traits of European rapeseed (canola) has reshaped Asian rapeseed into two groups (double-low and double-high), accompanied by an increase in genetic load in the double-low group. This study demonstrates distinctive genomic footprints and deleterious SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) variants for local adaptation by recent intra- and interspecies introgression events and provides novel insights for understanding the rapid genome evolution of a young allopolyploid crop. © 2019 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


April 21, 2020  |  

A high-quality genome assembly from a single, field-collected spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) using the PacBio Sequel II system

Background A high-quality reference genome is an essential tool for applied and basic research on arthropods. Long-read sequencing technologies may be used to generate more complete and contiguous genome assemblies than alternate technologies; however, long-read methods have historically had greater input DNA requirements and higher costs than next-generation sequencing, which are barriers to their use on many samples. Here, we present a 2.3 Gb de novo genome assembly of a field-collected adult female spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) using a single Pacific Biosciences SMRT Cell. The spotted lanternfly is an invasive species recently discovered in the northeastern United States that threatens to damage economically important crop plants in the region. Results The DNA from 1 individual was used to make 1 standard, size-selected library with an average DNA fragment size of ~20 kb. The library was run on 1 Sequel II SMRT Cell 8M, generating a total of 132 Gb of long-read sequences, of which 82 Gb were from unique library molecules, representing ~36× coverage of the genome. The assembly had high contiguity (contig N50 length = 1.5 Mb), completeness, and sequence level accuracy as estimated by conserved gene set analysis (96.8% of conserved genes both complete and without frame shift errors). Furthermore, it was possible to segregate more than half of the diploid genome into the 2 separate haplotypes. The assembly also recovered 2 microbial symbiont genomes known to be associated with L. delicatula, each microbial genome being assembled into a single contig. Conclusions We demonstrate that field-collected arthropods can be used for the rapid generation of high-quality genome assemblies, an attractive approach for projects on emerging invasive species, disease vectors, or conservation efforts of endangered species.


April 21, 2020  |  

A chromosomal-level genome assembly for the insect vector for Chagas disease, Triatoma rubrofasciata.

Triatoma rubrofasciata is a widespread pathogen vector for Chagas disease, an illness that affects approximately 7 million people worldwide. Despite its importance to human health, its evolutionary origin has not been conclusively determined. A reference genome for T. rubrofasciata is not yet available.We have sequenced the genome of a female individual with T. rubrofasciatausing a single molecular DNA sequencing technology (i.e., PacBio Sequel platform) and have successfully reconstructed a whole-genome (680-Mb) assembly that covers 90% of the nuclear genome (757 Mb). Through Hi-C analysis, we have reconstructed full-length chromosomes of this female individual that has 13 unique chromosomes (2n = 24 = 22 + X1 + X2) with a contig N50 of 2.72 Mb and a scaffold N50 of 50.7 Mb. This genome has achieved a high base-level accuracy of 99.99%. This platinum-grade genome assembly has 12,691 annotated protein-coding genes. More than 95.1% of BUSCO genes were single-copy completed, indicating a high level of completeness of the genome.The platinum-grade genome assembly and its annotation provide valuable information for future in-depth comparative genomics studies, including sexual determination analysis in T. rubrofasciata and the pathogenesis of Chagas disease. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

A chromosome-level draft genome of the grain aphid Sitobion miscanthi.

Sitobion miscanthi is an ideal model for studying host plant specificity, parthenogenesis-based phenotypic plasticity, and interactions between insects and other species of various trophic levels, such as viruses, bacteria, plants, and natural enemies. However, the genome information for this species has not yet to be sequenced and published. Here, we analyzed the entire genome of a parthenogenetic female aphid colony using Pacific Biosciences long-read sequencing and Hi-C data to generate chromosome-length scaffolds and a highly contiguous genome assembly.The final draft genome assembly from 33.88 Gb of raw data was ~397.90 Mb in size, with a 2.05 Mb contig N50. Nine chromosomes were further assembled based on Hi-C data to a 377.19 Mb final size with a 36.26 Mb scaffold N50. The identified repeat sequences accounted for 26.41% of the genome, and 16,006 protein-coding genes were annotated. According to the phylogenetic analysis, S. miscanthi is closely related to Acyrthosiphon pisum, with S. miscanthi diverging from their common ancestor ~25.0-44.9 million years ago.We generated a high-quality draft of the S. miscanthi genome. This genome assembly should help promote research on the lifestyle and feeding specificity of aphids and their interactions with each other and species at other trophic levels. It can serve as a resource for accelerating genome-assisted improvements in insecticide-resistant management and environmentally safe aphid management. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

Chromosomal-level assembly of the blolsod clam, Scapharca (Anadara) broughtonii, using long sequence reads and Hi-C.

The blood clam, Scapharca (Anadara) broughtonii, is an economically and ecologically important marine bivalve of the family Arcidae. Efforts to study their population genetics, breeding, cultivation, and stock enrichment have been somewhat hindered by the lack of a reference genome. Herein, we report the complete genome sequence of S. broughtonii, a first reference genome of the family Arcidae.A total of 75.79 Gb clean data were generated with the Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore platforms, which represented approximately 86× coverage of the S. broughtonii genome. De novo assembly of these long reads resulted in an 884.5-Mb genome, with a contig N50 of 1.80 Mb and scaffold N50 of 45.00 Mb. Genome Hi-C scaffolding resulted in 19 chromosomes containing 99.35% of bases in the assembled genome. Genome annotation revealed that nearly half of the genome (46.1%) is composed of repeated sequences, while 24,045 protein-coding genes were predicted and 84.7% of them were annotated.We report here a chromosomal-level assembly of the S. broughtonii genome based on long-read sequencing and Hi-C scaffolding. The genomic data can serve as a reference for the family Arcidae and will provide a valuable resource for the scientific community and aquaculture sector. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

De novo genome assembly of the endangered Acer yangbiense, a plant species with extremely small populations endemic to Yunnan Province, China.

Acer yangbiense is a newly described critically endangered endemic maple tree confined to Yangbi County in Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It was included in a programme for rescuing the most threatened species in China, focusing on “plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP)”.We generated 64, 94, and 110 Gb of raw DNA sequences and obtained a chromosome-level genome assembly of A. yangbiense through a combination of Pacific Biosciences Single-molecule Real-time, Illumina HiSeq X, and Hi-C mapping, respectively. The final genome assembly is ~666 Mb, with 13 chromosomes covering ~97% of the genome and scaffold N50 sizes of 45 Mb. Further, BUSCO analysis recovered 95.5% complete BUSCO genes. The total number of repetitive elements account for 68.0% of the A. yangbiense genome. Genome annotation generated 28,320 protein-coding genes, assisted by a combination of prediction and transcriptome sequencing. In addition, a nearly 1:1 orthology ratio of dot plots of longer syntenic blocks revealed a similar evolutionary history between A. yangbiense and grape, indicating that the genome has not undergone a whole-genome duplication event after the core eudicot common hexaploidization.Here, we report a high-quality de novo genome assembly of A. yangbiense, the first genome for the genus Acer and the family Aceraceae. This will provide fundamental conservation genomics resources, as well as representing a new high-quality reference genome for the economically important Acer lineage and the wider order of Sapindales. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

A chromosome-scale genome assembly of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

Accurate and complete reference genome assemblies are fundamental for biological research. Cucumber is an important vegetable crop and model system for sex determination and vascular biology. Low-coverage Sanger sequences and high-coverage short Illumina sequences have been used to assemble draft cucumber genomes, but the incompleteness and low quality of these genomes limit their use in comparative genomics and genetic research. A high-quality and complete cucumber genome assembly is therefore essential.We assembled single-molecule real-time (SMRT) long reads to generate an improved cucumber reference genome. This version contains 174 contigs with a total length of 226.2 Mb and an N50 of 8.9 Mb, and provides 29.0 Mb more sequence data than previous versions. Using 10X Genomics and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data, 89 contigs (~211.0 Mb) were directly linked into 7 pseudo-chromosome sequences. The newly assembled regions show much higher guanine-cytosine or adenine-thymine content than found previously, which is likely to have been inaccessible to Illumina sequencing. The new assembly contains 1,374 full-length long terminal retrotransposons and 1,078 novel genes including 239 tandemly duplicated genes. For example, we found 4 tandemly duplicated tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases, in contrast to the single copy of the gene found previously and in most other plants.This high-quality genome presents novel features of the cucumber genome and will serve as a valuable resource for genetic research in cucumber and plant comparative genomics. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

The genome assembly and annotation of yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge).

Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge), a deciduous shrub or small tree native to north China, is of great economic value. Seeds of yellowhorn are rich in oil containing unsaturated long-chain fatty acids that have been used for producing edible oil and nervonic acid capsules. However, the lack of a high-quality genome sequence hampers the understanding of its evolution and gene functions.In this study, a whole genome of yellowhorn was sequenced and assembled by integration of Illumina sequencing, Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time sequencing, 10X Genomics linked reads, Bionano optical maps, and Hi-C. The yellowhorn genome assembly was 439.97 Mb, which comprised 15 pseudo-chromosomes covering 95.42% (419.84 Mb) of the assembled genome. The repetitive fractions accounted for 56.39% of the yellowhorn genome. The genome contained 21,059 protein-coding genes. Of them, 18,503 (87.86%) genes were found to be functionally annotated with =1 “annotation” term by searching against other databases. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 341, 135, 125, 113, and 100 genes were specifically expressed in hermaphrodite flower, staminate flower, young fruit, leaf, and shoot, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that yellowhorn and Dimocarpus longan diverged from their most recent common ancestor ~46 million years ago.The availability and subsequent annotation of the yellowhorn genome, as well as the identification of tissue-specific functional genes, provides a valuable reference for plant comparative genomics, evolutionary studies, and molecular design breeding. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

Pseudomolecule-level assembly of the Chinese oil tree yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium) genome.

Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium) is a species of the Sapindaceae family native to China and is an oil tree that can withstand cold and drought conditions. A pseudomolecule-level genome assembly for this species will not only contribute to understanding the evolution of its genes and chromosomes but also bring yellowhorn breeding into the genomic era.Here, we generated 15 pseudomolecules of yellowhorn chromosomes, on which 97.04% of scaffolds were anchored, using the combined Illumina HiSeq, Pacific Biosciences Sequel, and Hi-C technologies. The length of the final yellowhorn genome assembly was 504.2 Mb with a contig N50 size of 1.04 Mb and a scaffold N50 size of 32.17 Mb. Genome annotation revealed that 68.67% of the yellowhorn genome was composed of repetitive elements. Gene modelling predicted 24,672 protein-coding genes. By comparing orthologous genes, the divergence time of yellowhorn and its close sister species longan (Dimocarpus longan) was estimated at ~33.07 million years ago. Gene cluster and chromosome synteny analysis demonstrated that the yellowhorn genome shared a conserved genome structure with its ancestor in some chromosomes.This genome assembly represents a high-quality reference genome for yellowhorn. Integrated genome annotations provide a valuable dataset for genetic and molecular research in this species. We did not detect whole-genome duplication in the genome. The yellowhorn genome carries syntenic blocks from ancient chromosomes. These data sources will enable this genome to serve as an initial platform for breeding better yellowhorn cultivars. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

A chromosome-scale assembly of the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus.

Anopheles funestus is one of the 3 most consequential and widespread vectors of human malaria in tropical Africa. However, the lack of a high-quality reference genome has hindered the association of phenotypic traits with their genetic basis in this important mosquito.Here we present a new high-quality A. funestus reference genome (AfunF3) assembled using 240× coverage of long-read single-molecule sequencing for contigging, combined with 100× coverage of short-read Hi-C data for chromosome scaffolding. The assembled contigs total 446 Mbp of sequence and contain substantial duplication due to alternative alleles present in the sequenced pool of mosquitos from the FUMOZ colony. Using alignment and depth-of-coverage information, these contigs were deduplicated to a 211 Mbp primary assembly, which is closer to the expected haploid genome size of 250 Mbp. This primary assembly consists of 1,053 contigs organized into 3 chromosome-scale scaffolds with an N50 contig size of 632 kbp and an N50 scaffold size of 93.811 Mbp, representing a 100-fold improvement in continuity versus the current reference assembly, AfunF1.This highly contiguous and complete A. funestus reference genome assembly will serve as an improved basis for future studies of genomic variation and organization in this important disease vector. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

Genome sequence of the corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch).

The corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch) is the most economically damaging aphid pest on maize (Zea mays), one of the world’s most important grain crops. In addition to causing direct damage by removing photoassimilates, R. maidis transmits several destructive maize viruses, including maize yellow dwarf virus, barley yellow dwarf virus, sugarcane mosaic virus, and cucumber mosaic virus.The genome of a parthenogenetically reproducing R. maidis clone was assembled with a combination of Pacific Biosciences (207-fold coverage) and Illumina (83-fold coverage) sequencing. The 689 assembled contigs, which have an N50 size of 9.0 megabases (Mb) and a low level of heterozygosity, were clustered using Phase Genomics Hi-C interaction maps. Consistent with the commonly observed 2n = 8 karyotype of R. maidis, most of the contigs (473 spanning 321 Mb) were successfully oriented into 4 scaffolds. The genome assembly captured the full length of 95.8% of the core eukaryotic genes, indicating that it is highly complete. Repetitive sequences accounted for 21.2% of the assembly, and a total of 17,629 protein-coding genes were predicted with integrated evidence from ab initio and homology-based gene predictions and transcriptome sequences generated with both Pacific Biosciences and Illumina. An analysis of likely horizontally transferred genes identified 2 from bacteria, 7 from fungi, 2 from protozoa, and 9 from algae. Repeat elements, transposons, and genes encoding likely detoxification enzymes (cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases, uridine diphosphate-glucosyltransferases, and ABC transporters) were identified in the genome sequence. Other than Buchnera aphidicola (642,929 base pairs, 602 genes), no endosymbiont bacteria were found in R. maidis.A high-quality R. maidis genome was assembled at the chromosome level. This genome sequence will enable further research related to ecological interactions, virus transmission, pesticide resistance, and other aspects of R. maidis biology. It also serves as a valuable resource for comparative investigation of other aphid species. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

A critical comparison of technologies for a plant genome sequencing project.

A high-quality genome sequence of any model organism is an essential starting point for genetic and other studies. Older clone-based methods are slow and expensive, whereas faster, cheaper short-read-only assemblies can be incomplete and highly fragmented, which minimizes their usefulness. The last few years have seen the introduction of many new technologies for genome assembly. These new technologies and associated new algorithms are typically benchmarked on microbial genomes or, if they scale appropriately, on larger (e.g., human) genomes. However, plant genomes can be much more repetitive and larger than the human genome, and plant biochemistry often makes obtaining high-quality DNA that is free from contaminants difficult. Reflecting their challenging nature, we observe that plant genome assembly statistics are typically poorer than for vertebrates.Here, we compare Illumina short read, Pacific Biosciences long read, 10x Genomics linked reads, Dovetail Hi-C, and BioNano Genomics optical maps, singly and combined, in producing high-quality long-range genome assemblies of the potato species Solanum verrucosum. We benchmark the assemblies for completeness and accuracy, as well as DNA compute requirements and sequencing costs.The field of genome sequencing and assembly is reaching maturity, and the differences we observe between assemblies are surprisingly small. We expect that our results will be helpful to other genome projects, and that these datasets will be used in benchmarking by assembly algorithm developers. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.


April 21, 2020  |  

The Modern View of B Chromosomes Under the Impact of High Scale Omics Analyses.

Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are extra karyotype units in addition to A chromosomes, and are found in some fungi and thousands of animals and plant species. Bs are uniquely characterized due to their non-Mendelian inheritance, and represent one of the best examples of genomic conflict. Over the last decades, their genetic composition, function and evolution have remained an unresolved query, although a few successful attempts have been made to address these phenomena. A classical concept based on cytogenetics and genetics is that Bs are selfish and abundant with DNA repeats and transposons, and in most cases, they do not carry any function. However, recently, the modern quantum development of high scale multi-omics techniques has shifted B research towards a new-born field that we call “B-omics”. We review the recent literature and add novel perspectives to the B research, discussing the role of new technologies to understand the mechanistic perspectives of the molecular evolution and function of Bs. The modern view states that B chromosomes are enriched with genes for many significant biological functions, including but not limited to the interesting set of genes related to cell cycle and chromosome structure. Furthermore, the presence of B chromosomes could favor genomic rearrangements and influence the nuclear environment affecting the function of other chromatin regions. We hypothesize that B chromosomes might play a key function in driving their transmission and maintenance inside the cell, as well as offer an extra genomic compartment for evolution.


April 21, 2020  |  

Critical length in long-read resequencing

Long-read sequencing has substantial advantages for structural variant discovery and phasing of vari- ants compared to short-read technologies, but the required and optimal read length has not been as- sessed. In this work, we used long reads simulated from human genomes and evaluated structural vari- ant discovery and variant phasing using current best practicebioinformaticsmethods.Wedeterminedthatoptimal discovery of structural variants from human genomes can be obtained with reads of minimally 20 kb. Haplotyping variants across genes only reaches its optimum from reads of 100 kb. These findings are important for the design of future long-read sequenc- ing projects.


April 21, 2020  |  

Integrating Hi-C links with assembly graphs for chromosome-scale assembly.

Long-read sequencing and novel long-range assays have revolutionized de novo genome assembly by automating the reconstruction of reference-quality genomes. In particular, Hi-C sequencing is becoming an economical method for generating chromosome-scale scaffolds. Despite its increasing popularity, there are limited open-source tools available. Errors, particularly inversions and fusions across chromosomes, remain higher than alternate scaffolding technologies. We present a novel open-source Hi-C scaffolder that does not require an a priori estimate of chromosome number and minimizes errors by scaffolding with the assistance of an assembly graph. We demonstrate higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods across a variety of Hi-C library preparations and input assembly sizes. The Python and C++ code for our method is openly available at https://github.com/machinegun/SALSA.


Talk with an expert

If you have a question, need to check the status of an order, or are interested in purchasing an instrument, we're here to help.