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Authors: Liang, Qiang and Li, Huayang and Li, Shouke and Yuan, Fuling and Sun, Jingfeng and Duan, Qicheng and Li, Qingyun and Zhang, Rui and Sang, Ya Lin and Wang, Nian and Hou, Xiangwen and Yang, Ke Qiang and Liu, Jian Ning and Yang, Long

Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge), a deciduous shrub or small tree native to north China, is of great economic value. Seeds of yellowhorn are rich in oil containing unsaturated long-chain fatty acids that have been used for producing edible oil and nervonic acid capsules. However, the lack of a high-quality genome sequence hampers the understanding of its evolution and gene functions.In this study, a whole genome of yellowhorn was sequenced and assembled by integration of Illumina sequencing, Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time sequencing, 10X Genomics linked reads, Bionano optical maps, and Hi-C. The yellowhorn genome assembly was 439.97 Mb, which comprised 15 pseudo-chromosomes covering 95.42% (419.84 Mb) of the assembled genome. The repetitive fractions accounted for 56.39% of the yellowhorn genome. The genome contained 21,059 protein-coding genes. Of them, 18,503 (87.86%) genes were found to be functionally annotated with =1 "annotation" term by searching against other databases. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 341, 135, 125, 113, and 100 genes were specifically expressed in hermaphrodite flower, staminate flower, young fruit, leaf, and shoot, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that yellowhorn and Dimocarpus longan diverged from their most recent common ancestor ~46 million years ago.The availability and subsequent annotation of the yellowhorn genome, as well as the identification of tissue-specific functional genes, provides a valuable reference for plant comparative genomics, evolutionary studies, and molecular design breeding. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press.

Journal: GigaScience
DOI: 10.1093/gigascience/giz071
Year: 2019

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