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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Effects of antibiotic on microflora in ileum and cecum for broilers by 16S rRNA sequence analysis.

An experiment was conducted to analyze and compare the microbial composition, abundance, dynamic distribution, and functions without and with antibiotic fed to broilers. A 16S rRNA-sequencing approach was used to evaluate the bacterial composition of the gut of male broilers under different groups. A total of 240 1-day old AA male broilers were randomly assigned to two groups, with 120 broilers per group. The treatment group was administered an antibiotic with their feed, while the control group was not administered antibiotic (control group). A total of 10 replicates were assessed per treatment. The control group was fed a basal diet…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The features of mucosa-associated microbiota in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Little is known about the role of the microbiome in primary sclerosing cholangitis.To explore the mucosa-associated microbiota in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients across different locations in the gut, and to compare it with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-only patients and healthy controls.Biopsies from the terminal ileum, right colon, and left colon were collected from patients and healthy controls undergoing colonoscopy. Microbiota profiling using bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on all biopsies.Forty-four patients were recruited: 20 with PSC (19 with PSC-IBD and one with PSC-only), 15 with IBD-only and nine healthy controls. The overall microbiome profile was similar throughout different…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Next generation sequencing technology: Advances and applications.

Impressive progress has been made in the field of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Through advancements in the fields of molecular biology and technical engineering, parallelization of the sequencing reaction has profoundly increased the total number of produced sequence reads per run. Current sequencing platforms allow for a previously unprecedented view into complex mixtures of RNA and DNA samples. NGS is currently evolving into a molecular microscope finding its way into virtually every fields of biomedical research. In this chapter we review the technical background of the different commercially available NGS platforms with respect to template generation and the sequencing reaction…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Laboratory colonization stabilizes the naturally dynamic microbiome composition of field collected Dermacentor andersoni ticks.

Nearly a quarter of emerging infectious diseases identified in the last century are arthropod-borne. Although ticks and insects can carry pathogenic microorganisms, non-pathogenic microbes make up the majority of their microbial communities. The majority of tick microbiome research has had a focus on discovery and description; very few studies have analyzed the ecological context and functional responses of the bacterial microbiome of ticks. The goal of this analysis was to characterize the stability of the bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks between generations and two populations within a species.The bacterial microbiome of D. andersoni midguts and salivary glands was analyzed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Indoleacrylic acid produced by commensal Peptostreptococcus species suppresses inflammation.

Host factors in the intestine help select for bacteria that promote health. Certain commensals can utilize mucins as an energy source, thus promoting their colonization. However, health conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are associated with a reduced mucus layer, potentially leading to dysbiosis associated with this disease. We characterize the capability of commensal species to cleave and transport mucin-associated monosaccharides and identify several Clostridiales members that utilize intestinal mucins. One such mucin utilizer, Peptostreptococcus russellii, reduces susceptibility to epithelial injury in mice. Several Peptostreptococcus species contain a gene cluster enabling production of the tryptophan metabolite indoleacrylic acid (IA), which…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Cultivation and sequencing of rumen microbiome members from the Hungate1000 Collection.

Productivity of ruminant livestock depends on the rumen microbiota, which ferment indigestible plant polysaccharides into nutrients used for growth. Understanding the functions carried out by the rumen microbiota is important for reducing greenhouse gas production by ruminants and for developing biofuels from lignocellulose. We present 410 cultured bacteria and archaea, together with their reference genomes, representing every cultivated rumen-associated archaeal and bacterial family. We evaluate polysaccharide degradation, short-chain fatty acid production and methanogenesis pathways, and assign specific taxa to functions. A total of 336 organisms were present in available rumen metagenomic data sets, and 134 were present in human gut…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Accurate determination of bacterial abundances in human metagenomes using full-length 16S sequencing reads

DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified marker genes, especially but not limited to the 16S rRNA gene, is perhaps the most common approach for profiling microbial communities. Due to technological constraints of commonly available DNA sequencing, these approaches usually take the form of short reads sequenced from a narrow, targeted variable region, with a corresponding loss of taxonomic resolution relative to the full length marker gene. We use Pacific Biosciences single-molecule, real-time circular consensus sequencing to sequence amplicons spanning the entire length of the 16S rRNA gene. However, this sequencing technology suffers from high sequencing error rate that needs to be addressed…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A community-based culture collection for targeting novel plant growth-promoting bacteria from the sugarcane microbiome.

The soil-plant ecosystem harbors an immense microbial diversity that challenges investigative approaches to study traits underlying plant-microbe association. Studies solely based on culture-dependent techniques have overlooked most microbial diversity. Here we describe the concomitant use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to target plant-beneficial microbial groups from the sugarcane microbiome. The community-based culture collection (CBC) approach was used to access microbes from roots and stalks. The CBC recovered 399 unique bacteria representing 15.9% of the rhizosphere core microbiome and 61.6-65.3% of the endophytic core microbiomes of stalks. By cross-referencing the CBC (culture-dependent) with the sugarcane microbiome profile (culture-independent), we designed a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Metabolism of toxic sugars by strains of the bee gut symbiont Gilliamella apicola.

Social bees collect carbohydrate-rich food to support their colonies, and yet, certain carbohydrates present in their diet or produced through the breakdown of pollen are toxic to bees. The gut microbiota of social bees is dominated by a few core bacterial species, including the Gram-negative species Gilliamella apicola We isolated 42 strains of G. apicola from guts of honey bees and bumble bees and sequenced their genomes. All of the G. apicola strains share high 16S rRNA gene similarity, but they vary extensively in gene repertoires related to carbohydrate metabolism. Predicted abilities to utilize different sugars were verified experimentally. Some strains can…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Bacteroides dorei dominates gut microbiome prior to autoimmunity in Finnish children at high risk for type 1 diabetes.

The incidence of the autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), has increased dramatically over the last half century in many developed countries and is particularly high in Finland and other Nordic countries. Along with genetic predisposition, environmental factors are thought to play a critical role in this increase. As with other autoimmune diseases, the gut microbiome is thought to play a potential role in controlling progression to T1D in children with high genetic risk, but we know little about how the gut microbiome develops in children with high genetic risk for T1D. In this study, the early development of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Fungal ITS1 deep-sequencing strategies to reconstruct the composition of a 26-species community and evaluation of the gut mycobiota of healthy Japanese individuals.

The study of mycobiota remains relatively unexplored due to the lack of sufficient available reference strains and databases compared to those of bacterial microbiome studies. Deep sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions is the de facto standard for fungal diversity analysis. However, results are often biased because of the wide variety of sequence lengths in the ITS regions and the complexity of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. In this study, a curated ITS database, ntF-ITS1, was constructed. This database can be utilized for the taxonomic assignment of fungal community members. We evaluated the efficacy of strategies for mycobiome analysis by…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Analyses of intestinal microbiota: culture versus sequencing.

Analyzing human as well as animal microbiota composition has gained growing interest because structural components and metabolites of microorganisms fundamentally influence all aspects of host physiology. Originally dominated by culture-dependent methods for exploring these ecosystems, the development of molecular techniques such as high throughput sequencing has dramatically increased our knowledge. Because many studies of the microbiota are based on the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene targets, they can, at least in principle, be compared to determine the role of the microbiome composition for developmental processes, host metabolism, and physiology as well as different diseases. In our review, we will…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The human microbiome and understanding the 16S rRNA gene in translational nursing science.

As more is understood regarding the human microbiome, it is increasingly important for nurse scientists and healthcare practitioners to analyze these microbial communities and their role in health and disease. 16S rRNA sequencing is a key methodology in identifying these bacterial populations that has recently transitioned from use primarily in research to having increased utility in clinical settings.The objectives of this review are to (a) describe 16S rRNA sequencing and its role in answering research questions important to nursing science; (b) provide an overview of the oral, lung, and gut microbiomes and relevant research; and (c) identify future implications for…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Interaction between the microbiome and TP53 in human lung cancer.

Lung cancer is the leading cancer diagnosis worldwide and the number one cause of cancer deaths. Exposure to cigarette smoke, the primary risk factor in lung cancer, reduces epithelial barrier integrity and increases susceptibility to infections. Herein, we hypothesize that somatic mutations together with cigarette smoke generate a dysbiotic microbiota that is associated with lung carcinogenesis. Using lung tissue from 33 controls and 143 cancer cases, we conduct 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) bacterial gene sequencing, with RNA-sequencing data from lung cancer cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas serving as the validation cohort.Overall, we demonstrate a lower alpha diversity in normal…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Extensive horizontal gene transfer in cheese-associated bacteria.

Acquisition of genes through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) allows microbes to rapidly gain new capabilities and adapt to new or changing environments. Identifying widespread HGT regions within multispecies microbiomes can pinpoint the molecular mechanisms that play key roles in microbiome assembly. We sought to identify horizontally transferred genes within a model microbiome, the cheese rind. Comparing 31 newly sequenced and 134 previously sequenced bacterial isolates from cheese rinds, we identified over 200 putative horizontally transferred genomic regions containing 4733 protein coding genes. The largest of these regions are enriched for genes involved in siderophore acquisition, and are widely distributed in…

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