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Tuesday, December 1, 2020

ASHG PacBio Workshop: The Iso-Seq method for discovering alternative splicing in human diseases

In this ASHG workshop presentation, Elizabeth Tseng of PacBio showed how the Iso-Seq method can be used to discover disease-associated alternative splicing. Because this approach to isoform sequencing yields accurate, full-length transcripts requiring no assembly, it’s ideal for disease studies that need a more comprehensive picture of alternative splicing activity. Tseng offered several published examples of how the Iso-Seq method has been used for everything from single-gene studies to whole-transcriptome studies, and also detailed how the latest Sequel System chemistry recovers more genes and produces more usable reads.

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Tuesday, December 1, 2020

Video Poster: Full-length RNA sequencing of Alzheimer brain sample using long reads reveals complex alternative splicing patterns

Long-read mRNA sequencing such as PacBio’s Iso-Seq method offer high-throughput transcriptome profiling that circumvents the transcript assembly problem by sequencing full-length cDNA. The Iso-Seq method has emerged as the most reliable technology for fully characterizing isoforms and, in turn, help shed light on underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we have utilized the Iso-Seq method to sequence an Alzheimer’s disease whole brain sample. This is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects ~44 million people worldwide, making it the most common form of dementia. Studies looking into disease mechanism have shown that changes in gene expression due to alternative splicing likely contribute to the…

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Tuesday, December 1, 2020

Video Poster: Capture long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) for uncovering human isoform diversity in the brain and characterizing SARS-CoV2 viral RNAs

Most genes in eukaryotic organisms produce alternative isoforms, broadening the diversity of proteins and non-coding RNAs encoded by the genome. In contrast to other RNA sequencing platforms that rely on short-read sequencing, long accurate reads from PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing can characterize full-length transcripts without the need for assembly and inference. The PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) method generates full-length sequences for transcripts up to 10 kb in length, with scalable throughput using barcoding approaches. The Iso-Seq application can be employed for a wide variety of studies, including improvement of gene annotation, identification of novel isoforms and fusion transcripts,…

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Tuesday, December 1, 2020

ASHG CoLab: PacBio HiFi reads for comprehensive characterization of genomes and single-cell isoform expression

In this ASHG 2020 CoLab presentation hear Principal Scientists, Aaron Wenger and Elizabeth Tseng share how highly accurate long reads (HiFi reads) provide comprehensive variant detection for both genomes and transcriptomes. Aaron Wenger describes how new improvements in protocols and analysis methods have increased scalability and accuracy of variant calling. As demonstrated in the precisionFDA Truth Challenge V2, HiFi reads (>99% accurate, 15 kb – 20 kb) now outperform short reads for single nucleotide and structural variant calling and match for small indels. This includes calling >30,000 small variants and >10,000 structural variants missed by short reads, many in medically…

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Tuesday, December 1, 2020

Webinar: Addressing “NGS Dead Zones” with third generation PacBio sequencing

SMRT Sequencing is a DNA sequencing technology characterized by long read lengths and high consensus accuracy, regardless of the sequence complexity or GC content of the DNA sample. These characteristics can be harnessed to address medically relevant genes, mRNA transcripts, and other genomic features that are otherwise difficult or impossible to resolve. I will describe examples for such new clinical research in diverse areas, including full-length gene sequencing with allelic haplotype phasing, gene/pseudogene discrimination, sequencing extreme DNA contexts, high-resolution pharmacogenomics, biomarker discovery, structural variant resolution, full-length mRNA isoform cataloging, and direct methylation detection.

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Tuesday, December 1, 2020

Webinar: PacBio targeted sequencing of long amplicons using PCR or hybrid capture

Targeted sequencing experiments commonly rely on either PCR or hybrid capture to enrich for targets of interest. When using short read sequencing platforms, these amplicons or fragments are frequently targeted to a few hundred base pairs to accommodate the read lengths of the platform. Given PacBio’s long readlength, it is straightforward to sequence amplicons or captured fragments that are multiple kilobases in length. These long sequences are useful for easily visualizing variants that include SNPs, CNVs and other structural variants, often without assembly. We will review methods for the sequencing of long amplicons and provide examples using amplicons that range…

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Thursday, November 12, 2020

Application Brief: Single-cell RNA sequencing with HiFi reads – Best Practices

With PacBio single-cell RNA sequencing using the Iso-Seq method, you can now distinguish between alternative transcript isoforms at the single-cell level. The highly accurate long reads (HiFi reads) can span the entire 5′ to 3′ end of a transcript, allowing a high-resolution view of isoform diversity and revealing cell-to-cell heterogeneity without the need for assembly.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

RNA sequencing: the teenage years.

Over the past decade, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become an indispensable tool for transcriptome-wide analysis of differential gene expression and differential splicing of mRNAs. However, as next-generation sequencing technologies have developed, so too has RNA-seq. Now, RNA-seq methods are available for studying many different aspects of RNA biology, including single-cell gene expression, translation (the translatome) and RNA structure (the structurome). Exciting new applications are being explored, such as spatial transcriptomics (spatialomics). Together with new long-read and direct RNA-seq technologies and better computational tools for data analysis, innovations in RNA-seq are contributing to a fuller understanding of RNA biology, from questions…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Gammaherpesvirus Readthrough Transcription Generates a Long Non-Coding RNA That Is Regulated by Antisense miRNAs and Correlates with Enhanced Lytic Replication In Vivo.

Gammaherpesviruses, including the human pathogens Epstein?Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are oncogenic viruses that establish lifelong infections in hosts and are associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases and lymphomas. Recent studies have shown that the majority of the mammalian genome is transcribed and gives rise to numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Likewise, the large double-stranded DNA virus genomes of herpesviruses undergo pervasive transcription, including the expression of many as yet uncharacterized lncRNAs. Murine gammaperherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, MuHV-4, ?HV68) is a natural pathogen of rodents, and is genetically and pathogenically related to EBV and KSHV, providing a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

TranscriptClean: variant-aware correction of indels, mismatches and splice junctions in long-read transcripts.

Long-read, single-molecule sequencing platforms hold great potential for isoform discovery and characterization of multi-exon transcripts. However, their high error rates are an obstacle to distinguishing novel transcript isoforms from sequencing artifacts. Therefore, we developed the package TranscriptClean to correct mismatches, microindels and noncanonical splice junctions in mapped transcripts using the reference genome while preserving known variants.Our method corrects nearly all mismatches and indels present in a publically available human PacBio Iso-seq dataset, and rescues 39% of noncanonical splice junctions.All Python and R scripts used in this paper are available at https://github.com/dewyman/TranscriptClean.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long-read sequencing unveils IGH-DUX4 translocation into the silenced IGH allele in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

IGH@ proto-oncogene translocation is a common oncogenic event in lymphoid lineage cancers such as B-ALL, lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Here, to investigate the interplay between IGH@ proto-oncogene translocation and IGH allelic exclusion, we perform long-read whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing along with epigenetic and 3D genome profiling of Nalm6, an IGH-DUX4 positive B-ALL cell line. We detect significant allelic imbalance on the wild-type over the IGH-DUX4 haplotype in expression and epigenetic data, showing IGH-DUX4 translocation occurs on the silenced IGH allele. In vitro, this reduces the oncogenic stress of DUX4 high-level expression. Moreover, patient samples of IGH-DUX4 B-ALL have similar expression…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Long-Read Sequencing Emerging in Medical Genetics

The wide implementation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has revolutionized the field of medical genetics. However, the short read lengths of currently used sequencing approaches pose a limitation for identification of structural variants, sequencing repetitive regions, phasing alleles and distinguishing highly homologous genomic regions. These limitations may significantly contribute to the diagnostic gap in patients with genetic disorders who have undergone standard NGS, like whole exome or even genome sequencing. Now, the emerging long-read sequencing (LRS) technologies may offer improvements in the characterization of genetic variation and regions that are difficult to assess with the currently prevailing NGS approaches. LRS…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Improved annotation of the domestic pig genome through integration of Iso-Seq and RNA-seq data.

Our understanding of the pig transcriptome is limited. RNA transcript diversity among nine tissues was assessed using poly(A) selected single-molecule long-read isoform sequencing (Iso-seq) and Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from a single White cross-bred pig. Across tissues, a total of 67,746 unique transcripts were observed, including 60.5% predicted protein-coding, 36.2% long non-coding RNA and 3.3% nonsense-mediated decay transcripts. On average, 90% of the splice junctions were supported by RNA-seq within tissue. A large proportion (80%) represented novel transcripts, mostly produced by known protein-coding genes (70%), while 17% corresponded to novel genes. On average, four transcripts per known gene (tpg) were…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Systematic analysis of dark and camouflaged genes reveals disease-relevant genes hiding in plain sight.

The human genome contains “dark” gene regions that cannot be adequately assembled or aligned using standard short-read sequencing technologies, preventing researchers from identifying mutations within these gene regions that may be relevant to human disease. Here, we identify regions with few mappable reads that we call dark by depth, and others that have ambiguous alignment, called camouflaged. We assess how well long-read or linked-read technologies resolve these regions.Based on standard whole-genome Illumina sequencing data, we identify 36,794 dark regions in 6054 gene bodies from pathways important to human health, development, and reproduction. Of these gene bodies, 8.7% are completely dark…

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Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Single cell isoform sequencing (scIso-Seq) identifies novel full-length mRNAs and cell type-specific expression

Single cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) is an emerging field for characterizing cell heterogeneity in complex tissues. However, most scRNA-seq methodologies are limited to gene count information due to short read lengths. Here, we combine the microfluidics scRNA-seq technique, Drop-Seq, with PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing to generate full-length transcript isoforms that can be confidently assigned to individual cells. We generated single cell Iso-Seq (scIso-Seq) libraries for chimp and human cerebral organoid samples on the Dolomite Nadia platform and sequenced each library with two SMRT Cells 8M on the PacBio Sequel II System. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify, classify,…

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