April 21, 2020  |  

Tracking short-term changes in the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of OXA-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14 in clinical settings.

To track stepwise changes in genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance in rapidly evolving OXA-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST14, an emerging carbapenem-resistant high-risk clone, in clinical settings.Twenty-six K. pneumoniae ST14 isolates were collected by the Korean Nationwide Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance system over the course of 1 year. Isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing and MIC determinations using 33 antibiotics from 14 classes.Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing identified 72 unique SNP sites spanning the chromosomes of the isolates, dividing them into three clusters (I, II and III). The initial isolate possessed two plasmids with 18 antibiotic-resistance genes, including blaOXA-232, and exhibited resistance to 11 antibiotic classes. Four other plasmids containing 12 different resistance genes, including blaCTX-M-15 and strA/B, were introduced over time, providing additional resistance to aztreonam and streptomycin. Moreover, chromosomal integration of insertion sequence Ecp1-blaCTX-M-15 mediated the inactivation of mgrB responsible for colistin resistance in four isolates from cluster III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of K. pneumoniae ST14 resistant to both carbapenem and colistin in South Korea. Furthermore, although some acquired genes were lost over time, the retention of 12 resistance genes and inactivation of mgrB provided resistance to 13 classes of antibiotics.We describe stepwise changes in OXA-232-producing K. pneumoniae ST14 in vivo over time in terms of antimicrobial resistance. Our findings contribute to our understanding of the evolution of emerging high-risk K. pneumoniae clones and provide reference data for future outbreaks.Copyright © 2019 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


April 21, 2020  |  

Potent LpxC Inhibitors with In Vitro Activity Against Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

New drugs with novel mechanisms of resistance are desperately needed to address both community and nosocomial infections due to Gram-negative bacteria. One such potential target is LpxC, an essential enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of Lipid A biosynthesis. Achaogen conducted an extensive research campaign to discover novel LpxC inhibitors with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa We report here the in vitro antibacterial activity and pharmacodynamics of ACHN-975, the only molecule from these efforts and the first ever LpxC inhibitor to be evaluated in Phase 1 clinical trials. In addition, we describe the profile of three additional LpxC inhibitors that were identified as potential lead molecules. These efforts did not produce an additional development candidate with a sufficiently large therapeutic window and the program was subsequently terminated.Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.


April 21, 2020  |  

Early emergence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in gulls from Spain and Portugal.

We tested extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing bacteria from wild gulls (Larus spp.) sampled in 2009 for the presence of mcr-1. We report the detection of mcr-1 and describe genome characteristics of four Escherichia coli and one Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Spain and Portugal that also exhibited colistin resistance. Results represent the earliest evidence for colistin-resistant bacteria in European wildlife.Published 2019. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


April 21, 2020  |  

Plasmid-encoded tet(X) genes that confer high-level tigecycline resistance in Escherichia coli.

Tigecycline is one of the last-resort antibiotics to treat complicated infections caused by both multidrug-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria1. Tigecycline resistance has sporadically occurred in recent years, primarily due to chromosome-encoding mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pumps and ribosome protection2,3. Here, we report the emergence of the plasmid-mediated mobile tigecycline resistance mechanism Tet(X4) in Escherichia coli isolates from China, which is capable of degrading all tetracyclines, including tigecycline and the US FDA newly approved eravacycline. The tet(X4)-harbouring IncQ1 plasmid is highly transferable, and can be successfully mobilized and stabilized in recipient clinical and laboratory strains of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. It is noteworthy that tet(X4)-positive E.?coli strains, including isolates co-harbouring mcr-1, have been widely detected in pigs, chickens, soil and dust samples in China. In vivo murine models demonstrated that the presence of Tet(X4) led to tigecycline treatment failure. Consequently, the emergence of plasmid-mediated Tet(X4) challenges the clinical efficacy of the entire family of tetracycline antibiotics. Importantly, our study raises concern that the plasmid-mediated tigecycline resistance may further spread into various ecological niches and into clinical high-risk pathogens. Collective efforts are in urgent need to preserve the potency of these essential antibiotics.


April 21, 2020  |  

Emergence of plasmid-mediated high-level tigecycline resistance genes in animals and humans.

Tigecycline is a last-resort antibiotic that is used to treat severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant bacteria. tet(X) has been shown to encode a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that modifies tigecycline1,2. Here, we report two unique mobile tigecycline-resistance genes, tet(X3) and tet(X4), in numerous Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter that were isolated from animals, meat for consumption and humans. Tet(X3) and Tet(X4) inactivate all tetracyclines, including tigecycline and the newly FDA-approved eravacycline and omadacycline. Both tet(X3) and tet(X4) increase (by 64-128-fold) the tigecycline minimal inhibitory concentration values for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. In addition, both Tet(X3) (A. baumannii) and Tet(X4) (E. coli) significantly compromise tigecycline in in vivo infection models. Both tet(X3) and tet(X4) are adjacent to insertion sequence ISVsa3 on their respective conjugative plasmids and confer a mild fitness cost (relative fitness of >0.704). Database mining and retrospective screening analyses confirm that tet(X3) and tet(X4) are globally present in clinical bacteria-even in the same bacteria as blaNDM-1, resulting in resistance to both tigecycline and carbapenems. Our findings suggest that both the surveillance of tet(X) variants in clinical and animal sectors and the use of tetracyclines in food production require urgent global attention.


April 21, 2020  |  

Integrating multiple genomic technologies to investigate an outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter hormaechei

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) represent one of the most urgent threats to human health posed by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Enterobacter hormaechei and other members of the Enterobacter cloacae complex are the most commonly encountered Enterobacter spp. within clinical settings, responsible for numerous outbreaks and ultimately poorer patient outcomes. Here we applied three complementary whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies to characterise a hospital cluster of blaIMP-4 carbapenemase-producing E. hormaechei.In response to a suspected CRE outbreak in 2015 within an Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/Burns Unit in a Brisbane tertiary referral hospital we used Illumina sequencing to determine that all outbreak isolates were sequence type (ST)90 and near-identical at the core genome level. Comparison to publicly available data unequivocally linked all 10 isolates to a 2013 isolate from the same ward, confirming the hospital environment as the most likely original source of infection in the 2015 cases. No clonal relationship was found to IMP-4-producing isolates identified from other local hospitals. However, using Pacific Biosciences long-read sequencing we were able to resolve the complete context of the blaIMP-4 gene, which was found to be on a large IncHI2 plasmid carried by all IMP-4-producing isolates. Continued surveillance of the hospital environment was carried out using Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing, which was able to rapidly resolve the true relationship of subsequent isolates to the initial outbreak. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of environmental samples also found evidence of ST90 E. hormaechei and the IncHI2 plasmid within the hospital plumbing.Overall, our strategic application of three WGS technologies provided an in-depth analysis of the outbreak, including the transmission dynamics of a carbapenemase-producing E. hormaechei cluster, identification of possible hospital reservoirs and the full context of blaIMP-4 on a multidrug resistant IncHI2 plasmid that appears to be widely distributed in Australia.


April 21, 2020  |  

A novel blaSIM-1-carrying megaplasmid pSIM-1-BJ01 isolated from clinical Klebsiella pneumonia

A rare carbapenem-resistant gene blaSIM-1 was found in a 316-kb megaplasmid designated pSIM-1-BJ01 isolated from a clinical strain Klebsiella pneumonia 13624. The plasmid pSIM-1-BJ01 was fully sequenced and analyzed. Its length is 316,557 bp and it has 342 putative open reading frames with two multidrug-resistant regions and a total of 19 resistant genes. Its backbone was highly homologous to the newly reported plasmid pRJA166a, which was isolated from a clinical third-generation cephalosporin-resistant hypervirulen strain K. pneumonia ST23. The plasmid pSIM-1-BJ01 was verified to be able to transfer to Escherichia coli. The emergency of the transferable blaSIM-1-carrying multidrug-resistant plasmid pSIM-1-BJ01 suggests the spread of blaSIM among Enterobacteriaceae is possible. Therefore, the data presented herein provided insights into the genomic diversity and evolution of blaSIM-carrying plasmids, as well as the dissemination and epidemiology of blaSIM among Enterobacteriaceae in public health system.


April 21, 2020  |  

Increased prevalence of Escherichia coli strains from food carrying blaNDM and mcr-1-bearing plasmids that structurally resemble those of clinical strains, China, 2015 to 2017.

Introduction: Emergence of resistance determinants of blaNDM and mcr-1 has undermined the antimicrobial effectiveness of the last line drugs carbapenems and colistin. Aim: This work aimed to assess the prevalence of blaNDM and mcr-1 in E. coli strains collected from food in Shenzhen, China, during the period 2015 to 2017. Methods: Multidrug-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from food samples. Plasmids encoding mcr-1 or blaNDM genes were characterised and compared with plasmids found in clinical isolates.ResultsAmong 1,166 non-repeated cephalosporin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from 2,147 food samples, 390 and 42, respectively, were resistant to colistin and meropenem, with five strains being resistant to both agents. The rate of resistance to colistin increased significantly (p?


April 21, 2020  |  

Whole Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Chlorimuron-Ethyl Degrading Bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae 2N3.

Klebsiella pneumoniae 2N3 is a strain of gram-negative bacteria that can degrade chlorimuron-ethyl and grow with chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole nitrogen source. The complete genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae 2N3 was sequenced using third generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. The genomic size of strain 2N3 was 5.32 Mb with a GC content of 57.33% and a total of 5156 coding genes and 112 non-coding RNAs predicted. Two hydrolases expressed by open reading frames (ORFs) 0934 and 0492 were predicted and experimentally confirmed by gene knockout to be involved in the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl. Strains of ?ORF 0934, ?ORF 0492, and wild type (WT) reached their highest growth rates after 8-10 hours in incubation. The degradation rates of chlorimuron-ethyl by both ?ORF 0934 and ?ORF 0492 decreased in comparison to the WT during the first 8 hours in culture by 25.60% and 24.74%, respectively, while strains ?ORF 0934, ?ORF 0492, and the WT reached the highest degradation rates of chlorimuron-ethyl in 36 hours of 74.56%, 90.53%, and 95.06%, respectively. This study provides scientific evidence to support the application of Klebsiella pneumoniae 2N3 in bioremediation to control environmental pollution.


April 21, 2020  |  

Advantage of the F2:A1:B- IncF Pandemic Plasmid over IncC Plasmids in In Vitro Acquisition and Evolution of blaCTX-M Gene-Bearing Plasmids in Escherichia coli.

Despite a fitness cost imposed on bacterial hosts, large conjugative plasmids play a key role in the diffusion of resistance determinants, such as CTX-M extended-spectrum ß-lactamases. Among the large conjugative plasmids, IncF plasmids are the most predominant group, and an F2:A1:B- IncF-type plasmid encoding a CTX-M-15 variant was recently described as being strongly associated with the emerging worldwide Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131)-O25b:H4 H30Rx/C2 sublineage. In this context, we investigated the fitness cost of narrow-range F-type plasmids, including the F2:A1:B- IncF-type CTX-M-15 plasmid, and of broad-range C-type plasmids in the K-12-like J53-2 E. coli strain. Although all plasmids imposed a significant fitness cost to the bacterial host immediately after conjugation, we show, using an experimental-evolution approach, that a negative impact on the fitness of the host strain was maintained throughout 1,120 generations with the IncC-IncR plasmid, regardless of the presence or absence of cefotaxime, in contrast to the F2:A1:B- IncF plasmid, whose cost was alleviated. Many chromosomal and plasmid rearrangements were detected after conjugation in transconjugants carrying the IncC plasmids but not in transconjugants carrying the F2:A1:B- IncF plasmid, except for insertion sequence (IS) mobilization from the fliM gene leading to the restoration of motility of the recipient strains. Only a few mutations occurred on the chromosome of each transconjugant throughout the experimental-evolution assay. Our findings indicate that the F2:A1:B- IncF CTX-M-15 plasmid is well adapted to the E. coli strain studied, contrary to the IncC-IncR CTX-M-15 plasmid, and that such plasmid-host adaptation could participate in the evolutionary success of the CTX-M-15-producing pandemic E. coli ST131-O25b:H4 lineage.Copyright © 2019 Mahérault et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

The blaNDM-1-Carrying IncA/C2 Plasmid Underlies Structural Alterations and Cointegrate Formation In Vivo.

In 2012, a carbapenemase-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolate carrying a blaNDM-1 multiresistance IncA/C2 plasmid, apart from IncHI2 and ColE-like plasmids, was detected in a wild bird in Germany. In a recent broiler chicken infection study, we observed transfer of this blaNDM-1-carrying IncA/C2 plasmid to other Enterobacteriaceae Here, we focused on the stability of this plasmid and gained insight into the type and frequency of its structural alterations after an in vivo passage in a broiler chicken infection study.Copyright © 2019 Hadziabdic et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Klebsiella quasipneumoniae Provides a Window into Carbapenemase Gene Transfer, Plasmid Rearrangements, and Patient Interactions with the Hospital Environment.

Several emerging pathogens have arisen as a result of selection pressures exerted by modern health care. Klebsiella quasipneumoniae was recently defined as a new species, yet its prevalence, niche, and propensity to acquire antimicrobial resistance genes are not fully described. We have been tracking inter- and intraspecies transmission of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) gene, blaKPC, between bacteria isolated from a single institution. We applied a combination of Illumina and PacBio whole-genome sequencing to identify and compare K. quasipneumoniae from patients and the hospital environment over 10- and 5-year periods, respectively. There were 32 blaKPC-positive K. quasipneumoniae isolates, all of which were identified as K. pneumoniae in the clinical microbiology laboratory, from 8 patients and 11 sink drains, with evidence for seven separate blaKPC plasmid acquisitions. Analysis of a single subclade of K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae (n?=?23 isolates) from three patients and six rooms demonstrated seeding of a sink by a patient, subsequent persistence of the strain in the hospital environment, and then possible transmission to another patient. Longitudinal analysis of this strain demonstrated the acquisition of two unique blaKPC plasmids and then subsequent within-strain genetic rearrangement through transposition and homologous recombination. Our analysis highlights the apparent molecular propensity of K. quasipneumoniae to persist in the environment as well as acquire carbapenemase plasmids from other species and enabled an assessment of the genetic rearrangements which may facilitate horizontal transmission of carbapenemases. Copyright © 2019 Mathers et al.


April 21, 2020  |  

Dynamics of Resistance Plasmids in Extended-Spectrum-ß-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae during Postinfection Colonization.

Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) are a major cause of bloodstream infections, and the colonization rate of EPE in the gut microbiota of individuals lacking prior hospitalization or comorbidities is increasing. In this study, we performed an in-depth investigation of the temporal dynamics of EPE and their plasmids during one year by collecting fecal samples from three patients initially seeking medical care for urinary tract infections. In two of the patients, the same strain that caused the urinary tract infection (UTI) was found at all consecutive samplings from the gut microbiota, and no other EPEs were detected, while in the third patient the UTI strain was only found in the initial UTI sample. Instead, this patient presented a complex situation where a mixed microbiota of different EPE strain types, including three different E. coli ST131 variants, as well as different bacterial species, was identified over the course of the study. Different plasmid dynamics were displayed in each of the patients, including the spread of plasmids between different strain types over time and the transposition of blaCTX-M-15 from the chromosome to a plasmid, followed by subsequent loss through homologous recombination. Small cryptic plasmids were found in all isolates from all patients, and they appear to move frequently between different strains in the microbiota. In conclusion, we could demonstrate an extensive variation of EPE strain types, plasmid composition, rearrangements, and horizontal gene transfer of genetic material illustrating the high dynamics nature and interactive environment of the gut microbiota during post-UTI carriage.Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.


April 21, 2020  |  

Conjugal Transfer, Whole-Genome Sequencing, and Plasmid Analysis of Four mcr-1-Bearing Isolates from U.S. Patients.

Four Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates bearing mcr-1 gene-harboring plasmids were characterized. All isolates demonstrated the ability to transfer colistin resistance to Escherichia coli; plasmids were stable in conjugants after multiple passages on nonselective media. mcr-1 was located on an IncX4 (n?=?3) or IncN (n?=?1) plasmid. The IncN plasmid harbored 13 additional antimicrobial resistance genes. Results indicate that the mcr-1-bearing plasmids in this study were highly transferable in vitro and stable in the recipients.This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.


April 21, 2020  |  

Detection of VIM-1-Producing Enterobacter cloacae and Salmonella enterica Serovars Infantis and Goldcoast at a Breeding Pig Farm in Germany in 2017 and Their Molecular Relationship to Former VIM-1-Producing S. Infantis Isolates in German Livestock Production.

In 2011, VIM-1-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and Escherichia coli were isolated for the first time in four German livestock farms. In 2015/2016, highly related isolates were identified in German pig production. This raised the issue of potential reservoirs for these isolates, the relation of their mobile genetic elements, and potential links between the different affected farms/facilities. In a piglet-producing farm suspicious for being linked to some blaVIM-1 findings in Germany, fecal and environmental samples were examined for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella spp. Newly discovered isolates were subjected to Illumina whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) hybridization experiments. WGS data of these isolates were compared with those for the previously isolated VIM-1-producing Salmonella Infantis isolates from pigs and poultry. Among 103 samples, one Salmonella Goldcoast isolate, one Salmonella Infantis isolate, and one Enterobacter cloacae isolate carrying the blaVIM-1 gene were detected. Comparative WGS analysis revealed that the blaVIM-1 gene was part of a particular Tn21-like transposable element in all isolates. It was located on IncHI2 (ST1) plasmids of ~290 to 300?kb with a backbone highly similar (98 to 100%) to that of reference pSE15-SA01028. SNP analysis revealed a close relationship of all VIM-1-positive S Infantis isolates described since 2011. The findings of this study demonstrate that the occurrence of the blaVIM-1 gene in German livestock is restricted neither to a certain bacterial species nor to a certain Salmonella serovar but is linked to a particular Tn21-like transposable element located on transferable pSE15-SA01028-like IncHI2 (ST1) plasmids, being present in all of the investigated isolates from 2011 to 2017.IMPORTANCE Carbapenems are considered one of few remaining treatment options against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in human clinical settings. The occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in livestock and food is a major public health concern. Particularly the occurrence of VIM-1-producing Salmonella Infantis in livestock farms is worrisome, as this zoonotic pathogen is one of the main causes for human salmonellosis in Europe. Investigations on the epidemiology of those carbapenemase-producing isolates and associated mobile genetic elements through an in-depth molecular characterization are indispensable to understand the transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae along the food chain and between different populations to develop strategies to prevent their further spread.Copyright © 2019 Roschanski et al.


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