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Sunday, October 25, 2020

AGBT Virtual Poster: Mind the gap – upgrading reference genomes with Pacific Biosciences RS long read sequencing technology

Adam English, lead bioinformatics programmer at Baylor College of Medicine, discusses challenges with resolving gaps in high-quality draft genome assemblies. Sequencing biases, repetitive genomic features, genomic polymorphism, and other complicating factors all come together to make some regions difficult or impossible to assemble. For more facile assembly and automated finishing of draft genomes, he presents an automated approach to finishing using long reads from the PacBio System. The tool PBJelly automates the finishing process using long sequence reads in a reference-guided assembly process. Using PBJelly and SMRT Sequencing, they upgraded the draft genome sequences of a simulated Drosophila melanogaster, the version…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequences of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Recovered from a Major Production Region for Leafy Greens in California.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen and is responsible for outbreaks of human gastroenteritis. This report documents the draft genome sequences of nine O157:H7 cattle strains, which were identified to be PCR positive for a Shiga toxin gene but displayed different levels of functional toxin activity.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequences of Flavobacterium columnare Strains ARS1 and BGFS27, Isolated from Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

Flavobacterium columnare strain BGFS27 was isolated from an apparently healthy wild channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) collected from the Mobile River in 2005. F. columnare strain ARS1 was isolated from a channel catfish suffering from columnaris disease in a commercial farm in 1996. BGFS27 belongs to genomovar II (genetic group 2), while ARS1 belongs to genomovar III (genetic group 3). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of F. columnare BGFS27 and ARS1, obtained by PacBio sequencing.Copyright © 2019 Cai and Arias.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequences of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana, and Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica, Potential Etiological Agents of Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

We present here the draft genome sequences of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana, and Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica, potential etiological agents of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). Sequence data were obtained using PacBio and MiSeq platforms. The PacBio assemblies generated using Canu v1.6 are more contiguous than are those in the available data.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequences of Type VI Secretion System-Encoding Vibrio fischeri Strains FQ-A001 and ES401.

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) facilitates lethal competition between bacteria through direct contact. Comparative genomics has facilitated the study of these systems in Vibrio fischeri, which colonizes the squid host Euprymna scolopes Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two lethal V. fischeri strains that encode the T6SS, FQ-A001 and ES401.Copyright © 2019 Bultman et al.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Draft Genome Sequences of 38 Serratia marcescens Isolates Associated with Acroporid Serratiosis.

Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterium causally linked to acroporid serratiosis, a form of white pox disease implicated in the decline of elkhorn corals. We report draft genomes of 38 S. marcescens isolates collected from host and nonhost sources. The availability of these genomes will aid future analyses of acroporid serratiosis. Copyright © 2019 Elledge et al.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A High-Quality Grapevine Downy Mildew Genome Assembly Reveals Rapidly Evolving and Lineage-Specific Putative Host Adaptation Genes.

Downy mildews are obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens that cause devastating plant diseases on economically important crops. Plasmopara viticola is the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, a major disease in vineyards worldwide. We sequenced the genome of Pl. viticola with PacBio long reads and obtained a new 92.94?Mb assembly with high contiguity (359 scaffolds for a N50 of 706.5?kb) due to a better resolution of repeat regions. This assembly presented a high level of gene completeness, recovering 1,592 genes encoding secreted proteins involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Plasmopara viticola had a two-speed genome architecture, with secreted protein-encoding genes preferentially located in…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Conventional culture methods with commercially available media unveil the presence of novel culturable bacteria.

Recent metagenomic analysis has revealed that our gut microbiota plays an important role in not only the maintenance of our health but also various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. However, most intestinal bacteria are considered ‘unculturable’ bacteria, and their functions remain unknown. Although culture-independent genomic approaches have enabled us to gain insight into their potential roles, culture-based approaches are still required to understand their characteristic features and phenotypes. To date, various culturing methods have been attempted to obtain these ‘unculturable’ bacteria, but most such methods require advanced techniques. Here, we have tried to isolate possible…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence of the novel agarolytic Catenovulum-like strain CCB-QB4

Members of the genus Catenovulum are recognized for their ability to degrade algal biomass. Here we report the complete genome of Cantenovulum–like strain CCB-QB4, an agarolytic bacterium isolated from the coastal area of Penang, Malaysia. The sequenced genome is composed of a 5,663,044?bp circular chromosome and a 208,085?bp circular plasmid. It contained 4409 protein coding and 83 RNA genes, including 62 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs. The genome of CCB-QB4 contains many agarases, which correlate with the high capacity of the strain to degrade agar. Genome sequencing of CCB-QB4 reveals gene candidates of potential interest in enzymatic industries or applications in…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Physiological properties and genetic analysis related to exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in the fresh-water unicellular cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Suizenji Nori).

The clonal strains, phycoerythrin(PE)-rich- and PE-poor strains, of the unicellular, fresh water cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Suringar) Okada (Suizenji Nori, in Japanese) were isolated from traditional open-air aquafarms in Japan. A. sacrum appeared to be oligotrophic on the basis of its growth characteristics. The optimum temperature for growth was around 20°C. Maximum growth and biomass increase at 20°C was obtained under light intensities between 40 to 80 µmol m-2 s-1 (fluorescent lamps, 12 h light/12 h dark cycles) and between 40 to 120 µmol m-2 s-1 for PE-rich and PE-poor strains, respectively, of A. sacrum . Purified exopolysaccharide (EPS) of A.…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Reference genome sequences of two cultivated allotetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense.

Allotetraploid cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense) have long been cultivated worldwide for natural renewable textile fibers. The draft genome sequences of both species are available but they are highly fragmented and incomplete1-4. Here we report reference-grade genome assemblies and annotations for G. hirsutum accession Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and G. barbadense accession 3-79 by integrating single-molecule real-time sequencing, BioNano optical mapping and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques. Compared with previous assembled draft genomes1,3, these genome sequences show considerable improvements in contiguity and completeness for regions with high content of repeats such as centromeres. Comparative genomics analyses identify extensive structural…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Clonal expansion and spread of the ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain FC428, identified in Japan in 2015, and closely related isolates.

Ceftriaxone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern globally because a high-dose (1?g) injection of ceftriaxone is the only remaining option for empirical monotherapy of gonorrhoea. The ceftriaxone-resistant gonococcal strain FC428, cultured in Osaka in 2015, is suspected to have spread nationally and internationally. We describe the complete finished genomes of FC428 and two closely related isolates from Osaka in 2015, and examine the genomic epidemiology of these isolates plus three ceftriaxone-resistant gonococcal isolates from Osaka and Hyogo in 2016-17 and four ceftriaxone-resistant gonococcal isolates cultured in 2017 in Australia, Canada and Denmark.During 2015-17, we identified six…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Assembly of the Genome of an Acidovorax citrulli Strain Reveals a Naturally Occurring Plasmid in This Species.

Acidovorax citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a serious threat to cucurbit crop production worldwide. Based on genetic and phenotypic properties, A. citrulli strains are divided into two major groups: group I strains have been generally isolated from melon and other non-watermelon cucurbits, while group II strains are closely associated with watermelon. In a previous study, we reported the genome of the group I model strain, M6. At that time, the M6 genome was sequenced by MiSeq Illumina technology, with reads assembled into 139 contigs. Here, we report the assembly of the M6 genome following sequencing…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative genomics reveals structural and functional features specific to the genome of a foodborne Escherichia coli O157:H7.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) has been linked to numerous foodborne disease outbreaks. The ability to rapidly sequence and analyze genomes is important for understanding epidemiology, virulence, survival, and evolution of outbreak strains. In the current study, we performed comparative genomics to determine structural and functional features of the genome of a foodborne O157 isolate NADC 6564 and infer its evolutionary relationship to other O157 strains.The chromosome of NADC 6564 contained 5466?kb compared to reference strains Sakai (5498?kb) and EDL933 (5547?kb) and shared 41 of its 43 Linear Conserved Blocks (LCB) with the reference strains. However, 18 of 41 LCB had…

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