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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Intraspecific comparative genomics of isolates of the Norway spruce pathogen (Heterobasidion parviporum) and identification of its potential virulence factors.

Heterobasidion parviporum is an economically most important fungal forest pathogen in northern Europe, causing root and butt rot disease of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and virulence of this species remain elusive. No reference genome to facilitate functional analysis is available for this species.To better understand the virulence factor at both phenotypic and genomic level, we characterized 15 H. parviporum isolates originating from different locations across Finland for virulence, vegetative growth, sporulation and saprotrophic wood decay. Wood decay capability and latitude of fungal origins exerted interactive effects on their virulence and appeared important for…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Deciphering lignocellulose deconstruction by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus based on genomic and transcriptomic analyses.

Irpex lacteus is one of the most potent white rot fungi for biological pretreatment of lignocellulose for second biofuel production. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism involved in lignocellulose deconstruction, genomic and transcriptomic analyses were carried out for I. lacteus CD2 grown in submerged fermentation using ball-milled corn stover as the carbon source.Irpex lacteus CD2 efficiently decomposed 74.9% lignin, 86.3% cellulose, and 83.5% hemicellulose in corn stover within 9 days. Manganese peroxidases were rapidly induced, followed by accumulation of cellulase and hemicellulase. Genomic analysis revealed that I. lacteus CD2 possessed a complete set of lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system composed mainly of class…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Cross-species comparison of the gut: Differential gene expression sheds light on biological differences in closely related tenebrionids.

The gut is one of the primary interfaces between an insect and its environment. Understanding gene expression profiles in the insect gut can provide insight into interactions with the environment as well as identify potential control methods for pests. We compared the expression profiles of transcripts from the gut of larval stages of two coleopteran insects, Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum. These tenebrionids have different life cycles, varying in the duration and number of larval instars. T. castaneum has a sequenced genome and has been a model for coleopterans, and we recently obtained a draft genome for T. molitor. We…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Comparative genomics of the wheat fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis reveals chromosomal variations and genome plasticity.

Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr) is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes the major wheat disease, tan spot. We set out to provide essential genomics-based resources in order to better understand the pathogenicity mechanisms of this important pathogen.Here, we present eight new Ptr isolate genomes, assembled and annotated; representing races 1, 2 and 5, and a new race. We report a high quality Ptr reference genome, sequenced by PacBio technology with Illumina paired-end data support and optical mapping. An estimated 98% of the genome coverage was mapped to 10 chromosomal groups, using a two-enzyme hybrid approach. The final reference genome was 40.9 Mb…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Heterologous expression guides identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster of chuangxinmycin, an indole alkaloid antibiotic.

The indole alkaloid antibiotic chuangxinmycin, from Actinobacteria Actinoplanes tsinanensis, containing a unique thiopyrano[4,3,2- cd]indole scaffold, is a potent and selective inhibitor of bacterial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. The chuangxinmycin biosynthetic gene cluster was identified by in silico analysis of the genome sequence, then verified by heterologous expression. Systemic gene inactivation and intermediate identification determined the minimum set of genes for unique thiopyrano[4,3,2- cd]indole formation and the concerted action of a radical S-adenosylmethionine protein plus an unknown protein for addition of the 3-methyl group. These findings set a solid foundation for comprehensively investigating the biosynthesis, optimizing yield, and generating new analogues of chuangxinmycin.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Phytophthora cactorum genome provides insights into the adaptation to host defense compounds and fungicides.

Phytophthora cactorum is a homothallic oomycete pathogen, which has a wide host range and high capability to adapt to host defense compounds and fungicides. Here we report the 121.5?Mb genome assembly of the P. cactorum using the third-generation single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. It is the second largest genome sequenced so far in the Phytophthora genera, which contains 27,981 protein-coding genes. Comparison with other Phytophthora genomes showed that P. cactorum had a closer relationship with P. parasitica, P. infestans and P. capsici. P. cactorum has similar gene families in the secondary metabolism and pathogenicity-related effector proteins compared with other oomycete…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The genome of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma.

Marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) is considered to be a useful fish model for marine and estuarine ecotoxicology studies and has good potential for field-based population genomics because of its geographical distribution in Asian estuarine and coastal areas. In this study, we present the first whole-genome draft of O. melastigma. The genome assembly consists of 8,602 scaffolds (N50 = 23.737 Mb) and a total genome length of 779.4 Mb. A total of 23,528 genes were predicted, and 12,670 gene families shared with three teleost species (Japanese medaka, mangrove killifish and zebrafish) were identified. Genome analyses revealed that the O. melastigma genome is highly heterozygous and contains a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis provides insights into the evolution of the tea genome and tea quality.

Tea, one of the world’s most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ~0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The evolution of genomic and epigenomic features in two Pleurotus fungi.

Pleurotus tuoliensis (Bailinggu, designated Pt) and P. eryngii var. eryngii (Xingbaogu, designated Pe) are highly valued edible mushrooms. We report de novo assemblies of high-quality genomes for both mushrooms based on PacBio RS II sequencing and annotation of all identified genes. A comparative genomics analysis between Pt and Pe with P. ostreatus as an outgroup taxon revealed extensive genomic divergence between the two mushroom genomes primarily due to the rapid gain of taxon-specific genes and disruption of synteny in either taxon. The re-appraised phylogenetic relationship between Pt and Pe at the genome-wide level validates earlier proposals to designate Pt as…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A whole genome assembly of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and prediction of genes with roles in metabolism and sex determination.

Haematobia irritans, commonly known as the horn fly, is a globally distributed blood-feeding pest of cattle that is responsible for significant economic losses to cattle producers. Chemical insecticides are the primary means for controlling this pest but problems with insecticide resistance have become common in the horn fly. To provide a foundation for identification of genomic loci for insecticide resistance and for discovery of new control technology, we report the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the horn fly genome. The assembled genome is 1.14 Gb, comprising 76,616 scaffolds with N50 scaffold length of 23 Kb. Using RNA-Seq data, we have…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The genome of Artemisia annua provides insight into the evolution of Asteraceae family and artemisinin biosynthesis.

Artemisia annua, commonly known as sweet wormwood or Qinghao, is a shrub native to China and has long been used for medicinal purposes. A. annua is now cultivated globally as the only natural source of a potent anti-malarial compound, artemisinin. Here, we report a high-quality draft assembly of the 1.74-gigabase genome of A. annua, which is highly heterozygous, rich in repetitive sequences, and contains 63 226 protein-coding genes, one of the largest numbers among the sequenced plant species. We found that, as one of a few sequenced genomes in the Asteraceae, the A. annua genome contains a large number of genes…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Draft genome sequence of Annulohypoxylon stygium, Aspergillus mulundensis, Berkeleyomyces basicola (syn. Thielaviopsis basicola), Ceratocystis smalleyi, two Cercospora beticola strains, Coleophoma cylindrospora, Fusarium fracticaudum, Phialophora cf. hyalina, and Morchella septimelata.

Draft genomes of the species Annulohypoxylon stygium, Aspergillus mulundensis, Berkeleyomyces basicola (syn. Thielaviopsis basicola), Ceratocystis smalleyi, two Cercospora beticola strains, Coleophoma cylindrospora, Fusarium fracticaudum, Phialophora cf. hyalina and Morchella septimelata are presented. Both mating types (MAT1-1 and MAT1-2) of Cercospora beticola are included. Two strains of Coleophoma cylindrospora that produce sulfated homotyrosine echinocandin variants, FR209602, FR220897 and FR220899 are presented. The sequencing of Aspergillus mulundensis, Coleophoma cylindrospora and Phialophora cf. hyalina has enabled mapping of the gene clusters encoding the chemical diversity from the echinocandin pathways, providing data that reveals the complexity of secondary metabolism in these different species. Overall…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome sequencing of Streptomyces atratus SCSIOZH16 and activation production of nocardamine via metabolic engineering.

The Actinomycetes are metabolically flexible microorganisms capable of producing a wide range of interesting compounds, including but by no means limited to, siderophores which have high affinity for ferric iron. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of marine-derived Streptomyces atratus ZH16 and the activation of an embedded siderophore gene cluster via the application of metabolic engineering methods. The S. atratus ZH16 genome reveals that this strain has the potential to produce 26 categories of natural products (NPs) barring the ilamycins. Our activation studies revealed S. atratus SCSIO ZH16 to be a promising source of the production of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Improved de novo genome assembly and analysis of the Chinese cucurbit Siraitia grosvenorii, also known as monk fruit or luo-han-guo.

Luo-han-guo (Siraitia grosvenorii), also called monk fruit, is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family. Monk fruit has become an important area for research because of the pharmacological and economic potential of its noncaloric, extremely sweet components (mogrosides). It is also commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of lung congestion, sore throat, and constipation. Recently, a single reference genome became available for monk fruit, assembled from 36.9x genome coverage reads via Illumina sequencing platforms. This genome assembly has a relatively short (34.2 kb) contig N50 length and lacks integrated annotations. These drawbacks make it difficult to use as…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole-genome sequence and genome annotation of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, causal agent of bacterial black spot on Mangifera indica.

A newly isolated strain XC01 was identified as Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, isolated from an infected mango fruit in Guangxi, China. The complete genome sequence of XC01 was carried out using the PacBio RSII platform. The genome contains a circular chromosome with 3,865,165 bp, 3442 protein-coding genes, 53 tRNAs, and 2 rRNA operons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the soybeans bacterial pustule pathogen X. citri pv. glycines CFBP 2526, with a completely different host range. The genome sequence of XC01 may shed a highlight genes with a demonstrated or proposed role in on the pathogenesis.

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