Pleurotus tuoliensis (Bailinggu, designated Pt) and P. eryngii var. eryngii (Xingbaogu, designated Pe) are highly valued edible mushrooms. We report de novo assemblies of high-quality genomes for both mushrooms based on PacBio RS II sequencing and annotation of all identified genes. A comparative genomics analysis between Pt and Pe with P. ostreatus as an outgroup taxon revealed extensive genomic divergence between the two mushroom genomes primarily due to the rapid gain of taxon-specific genes and disruption of synteny in either taxon. The re-appraised phylogenetic relationship between Pt and Pe at the genome-wide level validates earlier proposals to designate Pt as an independent species. Variation of the identified wood-decay-related gene content can largely explain the variable adaptation and host specificity of the two mushrooms. On the basis of the two assembled genome sequences, methylomes and the regulatory roles of DNA methylation in gene expression were characterized and compared. The genome, methylome and transcriptome data of these two important mushrooms will provide valuable information for advancing our understanding of the evolution of Pleurotus and related genera and for facilitating genome- and epigenome-based strategies for mushroom breeding.
Journal: Scientific reports