September 22, 2019  |  

The Phytophthora cactorum genome provides insights into the adaptation to host defense compounds and fungicides.

Authors: Yang, Min and Duan, Shengchang and Mei, Xinyue and Huang, Huichuan and Chen, Wei and Liu, Yixiang and Guo, Cunwu and Yang, Ting and Wei, Wei and Liu, Xili and He, Xiahong and Dong, Yang and Zhu, Shusheng

Phytophthora cactorum is a homothallic oomycete pathogen, which has a wide host range and high capability to adapt to host defense compounds and fungicides. Here we report the 121.5?Mb genome assembly of the P. cactorum using the third-generation single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. It is the second largest genome sequenced so far in the Phytophthora genera, which contains 27,981 protein-coding genes. Comparison with other Phytophthora genomes showed that P. cactorum had a closer relationship with P. parasitica, P. infestans and P. capsici. P. cactorum has similar gene families in the secondary metabolism and pathogenicity-related effector proteins compared with other oomycete species, but specific gene families associated with detoxification enzymes and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) underwent expansion in P. cactorum. P. cactorum had a higher utilization and detoxification ability against ginsenosides-a group of defense compounds from Panax notoginseng-compared with the narrow host pathogen P. sojae. The elevated expression levels of detoxification enzymes and hydrolase activity-associated genes after exposure to ginsenosides further supported that the high detoxification and utilization ability of P. cactorum play a crucial role in the rapid adaptability of the pathogen to host plant defense compounds and fungicides.

Journal: Scientific reports
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-24939-2
Year: 2018

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