September 22, 2019  |  

The genome of an underwater architect, the caddisfly Stenopsyche tienmushanensis Hwang (Insecta: Trichoptera).

Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) are a highly adapted freshwater group of insects split from a common ancestor with Lepidoptera. They are the most diverse (>16,000 species) of the strictly aquatic insect orders and are widely employed as bio-indicators in water quality assessment and monitoring. Among the numerous adaptations to aquatic habitats, caddisfly larvae use silk and materials from the environment (e.g., stones, sticks, leaf matter) to build composite structures such as fixed retreats and portable cases. Understanding how caddisflies have adapted to aquatic habitats will help explain the evolution and subsequent diversification of the group.We sequenced a retreat-builder caddisfly Stenopsyche tienmushanensis Hwang and assembled a high-quality genome from both Illumina and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) sequencing. In total, 601.2 M Illumina reads (90.2 Gb) and 16.9 M PacBio subreads (89.0 Gb) were generated. The 451.5 Mb assembled genome has a contig N50 of 1.29 M, has a longest contig of 4.76 Mb, and covers 97.65% of the 1,658 insect single-copy genes as assessed by Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs. The genome comprises 36.76% repetitive elements. A total of 14,672 predicted protein-coding genes were identified. The genome revealed gene expansions in specific groups of the cytochrome P450 family and olfactory binding proteins, suggesting potential genomic features associated with pollutant tolerance and mate finding. In addition, the complete gene complex of the highly repetitive H-fibroin, the major protein component of caddisfly larval silk, was assembled.We report the draft genome of Stenopsyche tienmushanensis, the highest-quality caddisfly genome so far. The genome information will be an important resource for the study of caddisflies and may shed light on the evolution of aquatic insects.


September 22, 2019  |  

Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of the medicinal plant Zanthoxylum planispinum using a single-molecule direct RNA sequencing approach.

High-throughput RNA sequencing has revolutionized transcriptome-based studies of candidate genes, key pathways and gene regulation in non-model organisms. We analyzed full-length cDNA sequences in Zanthoxylum planispinum (Z. planispinum), a medicinal herb in major parts of East Asia. The full-length mRNA derived from tissues of leaf, early fruit and maturing fruit stage were sequenced using PacBio RSII platform to identify isoform transcriptome. We obtained 51,402 unigenes, with average 1781?bp per gene in 82.473?Mb gene lengths. Among 51,402, 3963 unigenes showed variety of isoform. By selection of one representative gene among each of the various isoforms, we finalized 46,306 unique gene set for this herb. We identified 76 cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and related isoforms that are of the wide diversity in the molecular function and biological process. These transcriptome data of Z. planispinum will provide a good resource to study metabolic engineering for the production of valuable medicinal drugs and phytochemicals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.


September 22, 2019  |  

Researches on transcriptome sequencing in the study of traditional Chinese medicine

Due to its incomparable advantages, the application of transcriptome sequencing in the study of traditional Chinese medicine attracts more and more attention of researchers, which greatly promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the applications of transcriptome sequencing in traditional Chinese medicine were summarized by reviewing recent related papers.


September 22, 2019  |  

Full-length transcriptome sequences and splice variants obtained by a combination of sequencing platforms applied to different root tissues of Salvia miltiorrhiza and tanshinone biosynthesis.

Danshen, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, wherein its rhizome/roots are particularly valued. The corresponding bioactive components include the tanshinone diterpenoids, the biosynthesis of which is a subject of considerable interest. Previous investigations of the S. miltiorrhiza transcriptome have relied on short-read next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, and the vast majority of the resulting isotigs do not represent full-length cDNA sequences. Moreover, these efforts have been targeted at either whole plants or hairy root cultures. Here, we demonstrate that the tanshinone pigments are produced and accumulate in the root periderm, and apply a combination of NGS and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to various root tissues, particularly including the periderm, to provide a more complete view of the S. miltiorrhiza transcriptome, with further insight into tanshinone biosynthesis as well. In addition, the use of SMRT long-read sequencing offered the ability to examine alternative splicing, which was found to occur in approximately 40% of the detected gene loci, including several involved in isoprenoid/terpenoid metabolism.© 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


September 22, 2019  |  

A workflow for studying specialized metabolism in nonmodel eukaryotic organisms

Eukaryotes contain a diverse tapestry of specialized metabolites, many of which are of significant pharmaceutical and industrial importance to humans. Nevertheless, exploration of specialized metabolic pathways underlying specific chemical traits in nonmodel eukaryotic organisms has been technically challenging and historically lagged behind that of the bacterial systems. Recent advances in genomics, metabolomics, phylogenomics, and synthetic biology now enable a new workflow for interrogating unknown specialized metabolic systems in nonmodel eukaryotic hosts with greater efficiency and mechanistic depth. This chapter delineates such workflow by providing a collection of state-of-the-art approaches and tools, ranging from multiomics-guided candidate gene identification to in vitro and in vivo functional and structural characterization of specialized metabolic enzymes. As already demonstrated by several recent studies, this new workflow opens up a gateway into the largely untapped world of natural product biochemistry in eukaryotes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


September 22, 2019  |  

Exploiting single-molecule transcript sequencing for eukaryotic gene prediction.

We develop a method to predict and validate gene models using PacBio single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) cDNA reads. Ninety-eight percent of full-insert SMRT reads span complete open reading frames. Gene model validation using SMRT reads is developed as automated process. Optimized training and prediction settings and mRNA-seq noise reduction of assisting Illumina reads results in increased gene prediction sensitivity and precision. Additionally, we present an improved gene set for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and the first genome-wide gene set for spinach (Spinacia oleracea). The workflow and guidelines are a valuable resource to obtain comprehensive gene sets for newly sequenced genomes of non-model eukaryotes.


September 22, 2019  |  

Full-length transcriptome survey and expression analysis of Cassia obtusifolia to discover putative genes related to aurantio-obtusin biosynthesis, seed formation and development, and stress response.

The seed is the pharmaceutical and breeding organ of Cassia obtusifolia, a well-known medical herb containing aurantio-obtusin (a kind of anthraquinone), food, and landscape. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of the biosynthesis of aurantio-obtusin, seed formation and development, and stress response of C. obtusifolia, it is necessary to understand the genomics information. Although previous seed transcriptome of C. obtusifolia has been carried out by short-read next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, the vast majority of the resulting unigenes did not represent full-length cDNA sequences and supply enough gene expression profile information of the various organs or tissues. In this study, fifteen cDNA libraries, which were constructed from the seed, root, stem, leaf, and flower (three repetitions with each organ) of C. obtusifolia, were sequenced using hybrid approach combining single-molecule real-time (SMRT) and NGS platform. More than 4,315,774 long reads with 9.66 Gb sequencing data and 361,427,021 short reads with 108.13 Gb sequencing data were generated by SMRT and NGS platform, respectively. 67,222 consensus isoforms were clustered from the reads and 81.73% (61,016) of which were longer than 1000 bp. Furthermore, the 67,222 consensus isoforms represented 58,106 nonredundant transcripts, 98.25% (57,092) of which were annotated and 25,573 of which were assigned to specific metabolic pathways by KEGG. CoDXS and CoDXR genes were directly used for functional characterization to validate the accuracy of sequences obtained from transcriptome. A total of 658 seed-specific transcripts indicated their special roles in physiological processes in seed. Analysis of transcripts which were involved in the early stage of anthraquinone biosynthesis suggested that the aurantio-obtusin in C. obtusifolia was mainly generated from isochorismate and Mevalonate/methylerythritol phosphate (MVA/MEP) pathway, and three reactions catalyzed by Menaquinone-specific isochorismate synthase (ICS), 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPPS) might be the limited steps. Several seed-specific CYPs, SAM-dependent methyltransferase, and UDP-glycosyltransferase (UDPG) supplied promising candidate genes in the late stage of anthraquinone biosynthesis. In addition, four seed-specific transcriptional factors including three MYB Transcription Factor (MYB) and one MADS-box Transcription Factor (MADS) transcriptional factors) and alternative splicing might be involved with seed formation and development. Meanwhile, most members of Hsp20 genes showed high expression level in seed and flower; seven of which might have chaperon activities under various abiotic stresses. Finally, the expressional patterns of genes with particular interests showed similar trends in both transcriptome assay and qRT-PCR. In conclusion, this is the first full-length transcriptome sequencing reported in Caesalpiniaceae family, and thus providing a more complete insight into aurantio-obtusin biosynthesis, seed formation and development, and stress response as well in C. obtusifolia.


September 22, 2019  |  

Global identification of alternative splicing via comparative analysis of SMRT- and Illumina-based RNA-seq in strawberry.

Alternative splicing (AS) is a key post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, yet little information is known about its roles in fruit crops. Here, AS was globally analyzed in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca genome with RNA-seq data derived from different stages of fruit development. The AS landscape was characterized and compared between the single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) and Illumina RNA-seq platform. While SMRT has a lower sequencing depth, it identifies more genes undergoing AS (57.67% of detected multiexon genes) when it is compared with Illumina (33.48%), illustrating the efficacy of SMRT in AS identification. We investigated different modes of AS in the context of fruit development; the percentage of intron retention (IR) is markedly reduced whereas that of alternative acceptor sites (AA) is significantly increased post-fertilization when compared with pre-fertilization. When all the identified transcripts were combined, a total of 66.43% detected multiexon genes in strawberry undergo AS, some of which lead to a gain or loss of conserved domains in the gene products. The work demonstrates that SMRT sequencing is highly powerful in AS discovery and provides a rich data resource for later functional studies of different isoforms. Further, shifting AS modes may contribute to rapid changes of gene expression during fruit set.© 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


September 22, 2019  |  

Genome and evolution of the shade-requiring medicinal herb Panax ginseng.

Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, reputed as the king of medicinal herbs, has slow growth, long generation time, low seed production and complicated genome structure that hamper its study. Here, we unveil the genomic architecture of tetraploid P. ginseng by de novo genome assembly, representing 2.98 Gbp with 59 352 annotated genes. Resequencing data indicated that diploid Panax species diverged in association with global warming in Southern Asia, and two North American species evolved via two intercontinental migrations. Two whole genome duplications (WGD) occurred in the family Araliaceae (including Panax) after divergence with the Apiaceae, the more recent one contributing to the ability of P. ginseng to overwinter, enabling it to spread broadly through the Northern Hemisphere. Functional and evolutionary analyses suggest that production of pharmacologically important dammarane-type ginsenosides originated in Panax and are produced largely in shoot tissues and transported to roots; that newly evolved P. ginseng fatty acid desaturases increase freezing tolerance; and that unprecedented retention of chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes enables efficient photosynthesis under low light. A genome-scale metabolic network provides a holistic view of Panax ginsenoside biosynthesis. This study provides valuable resources for improving medicinal values of ginseng either through genomics-assisted breeding or metabolic engineering.© 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


September 22, 2019  |  

Proteogenomic analysis reveals alternative splicing and translation as part of the abscisic acid response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

In eukaryotes, mechanisms such as alternative splicing (AS) and alternative translation initiation (ATI) contribute to organismal protein diversity. Specifically, splicing factors play crucial roles in responses to environment and development cues; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well investigated in plants. Here, we report the parallel employment of short-read RNA sequencing, single molecule long-read sequencing and proteomic identification to unravel AS isoforms and previously unannotated proteins in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Combining the data from the two sequencing methods, approximately 83.4% of intron-containing genes were alternatively spliced. Two AS types, which are referred to as alternative first exon (AFE) and alternative last exon (ALE), were more abundant than intron retention (IR); however, by contrast to AS events detected under normal conditions, differentially expressed AS isoforms were more likely to be translated. ABA extensively affects the AS pattern, indicated by the increasing number of non-conventional splicing sites. This work also identified thousands of unannotated peptides and proteins by ATI based on mass spectrometry and a virtual peptide library deduced from both strands of coding regions within the Arabidopsis genome. The results enhance our understanding of AS and alternative translation mechanisms under normal conditions, and in response to ABA treatment.© 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


September 22, 2019  |  

Full-length transcriptome sequencing and modular organization analysis of naringin/neoeriocitrin related gene expression pattern in Drynaria roosii.

Drynaria roosii (Nakaike) is a traditional Chinese medicinal fern, known as ‘GuSuiBu’. The effective components, naringin and neoeriocitrin, share a highly similar chemical structure and medicinal function. Our HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) results showed that the accumulation of naringin/neoeriocitrin depended on specific tissues or ages. However, little was known about the expression patterns of naringin/neoeriocitrin-related genes involved in their regulatory pathways. Due to a lack of basic genetic information, we applied a combination of single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and second-generation sequencing (SGS) to generate the complete and full-length transcriptome of D. roosii. According to the SGS data, the differentially expressed gene (DEG)-based heat map analysis revealed that naringin/neoeriocitrin-related gene expression exhibited obvious tissue- and time-specific transcriptomic differences. Using the systems biology method of modular organization analysis, we clustered 16,472 DEGs into 17 gene modules and studied the relationships between modules and tissue/time point samples, as well as modules and naringin/neoeriocitrin contents. We found that naringin/neoeriocitrin-related DEGs distributed in nine distinct modules, and DEGs in these modules showed significantly different patterns of transcript abundance to be linked to specific tissues or ages. Moreover, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) results further identified that PAL, 4CL and C4H, and C3H and HCT acted as the major hub genes involved in naringin and neoeriocitrin synthesis, respectively, and exhibited high co-expression with MYB- and basic helix-leucine-helix (bHLH)-regulated genes. In this work, modular organization and co-expression networks elucidated the tissue and time specificity of the gene expression pattern, as well as hub genes associated with naringin/neoeriocitrin synthesis in D. roosii. Simultaneously, the comprehensive transcriptome data set provided important genetic information for further research on D. roosii.


September 22, 2019  |  

Transcriptome analysis of distinct cold tolerance strategies in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

Natural rubber is an indispensable commodity used in approximately 40,000 products and is fundamental to the tire industry. Among the species that produce latex, the rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell-Arg.], a species native to the Amazon rainforest, is the major producer of latex used worldwide. The Amazon Basin presents optimal conditions for rubber tree growth, but the occurrence of South American leaf blight, which is caused by the fungus Microcyclus ulei (P. Henn) v. Arx, limits rubber tree production. Currently, rubber tree plantations are located in scape regions that exhibit suboptimal conditions such as high winds and cold temperatures. Rubber tree breeding programs aim to identify clones that are adapted to these stress conditions. However, rubber tree breeding is time-consuming, taking more than 20 years to develop a new variety. It is also expensive and requires large field areas. Thus, genetic studies could optimize field evaluations, thereby reducing the time and area required for these experiments. Transcriptome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful tool to identify a full set of transcripts and for evaluating gene expression in model and non-model species. In this study, we constructed a comprehensive transcriptome to evaluate the cold response strategies of the RRIM600 (cold-resistant) and GT1 (cold-tolerant) genotypes. Furthermore, we identified putative microsatellite (SSR) and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Alternative splicing, which is an important mechanism for plant adaptation under abiotic stress, was further identified, providing an important database for further studies of cold tolerance.


September 22, 2019  |  

Transcriptome profiling of two ornamental and medicinal papaver herbs.

The Papaver spp. (Papaver rhoeas (Corn poppy) and Papaver nudicaule (Iceland poppy)) genera are ornamental and medicinal plants that are used for the isolation of alkaloid drugs. In this study, we generated 700 Mb of transcriptome sequences with the PacBio platform. They were assembled into 120,926 contigs, and 1185 (82.2%) of the benchmarking universal single-copy orthologs (BUSCO) core genes were completely present in our assembled transcriptome. Furthermore, using 128 Gb of Illumina sequences, the transcript expression was assessed at three stages of Papaver plant development (30, 60, and 90 days), from which we identified 137 differentially expressed transcripts. Furthermore, three co-occurrence heat maps are generated from 51 different plant genomes along with the Papaver transcriptome, i.e., secondary metabolite biosynthesis, isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis (BIA) pathway, and cytochrome. Sixty-nine transcripts in the BIA pathway along with 22 different alkaloids (quantified with LC-QTOF-MS/MS) were mapped into the BIA KEGG map (map00950). Finally, we identified 39 full-length cytochrome transcripts and compared them with other genomes. Collectively, this transcriptome data, along with the expression and quantitative metabolite profiles, provides an initial recording of secondary metabolites and their expression related to Papaver plant development. Moreover, these profiles could help to further detail the functional characterization of the various secondary metabolite biosynthesis and Papaver plant development associated problems.


September 22, 2019  |  

Recent developments in using advanced sequencing technologies for the genomic studies of lignin and cellulose degrading microorganisms.

Lignin is a complex polyphenyl aromatic compound which exists in tight associations with cellulose and hemicellulose to form plant primary and secondary cell wall. Lignocellulose is an abundant renewable biomaterial present on the earth. It has gained much attention in the scientific community in recent years because of its potential applications in bio-based industries. Microbial degradation of lignocellulose polymers was well studied in wood decaying fungi. Based on the plant materials they degrade these fungi were classified as white rot, brown rot and soft rot. However, some groups of bacteria belonging to the actinomycetes, a-proteobacteria and ß-proteobacteria were also found to be efficient in degrading lignocellulosic biomass but not well understood unlike the fungi. In this review we focus on recent advancements deployed for finding and understanding the lignocellulose degradation by microorganisms. Conventional molecular methods like sequencing 16s rRNA and Inter Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were used for identification and classification of microbes. Recent progression in genomics mainly next generation sequencing technologies made the whole genome sequencing of microbes possible in a great ease. The whole genome sequence studies reveals high quality information about genes and canonical pathways involved in the lignin and other cell wall components degradation.


September 22, 2019  |  

Full-length transcriptome sequences and the identification of putative genes for flavonoid biosynthesis in safflower.

The flower of the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the ability to improve cerebral blood flow. Flavonoids are the primary bioactive components in safflower, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. Previous studies mostly used second-generation sequencing platforms to survey the putative flavonoid biosynthesis genes. For a better understanding of transcription data and the putative genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in safflower, we carry our study.High-quality RNA was extracted from six types of safflower tissue. The RNAs of different tissues were mixed equally and used for multiple size-fractionated libraries (1-2, 2-3 and 3-6 k) library construction. Five cells were carried (2 cells for 1-2 and for 2-3 k libraries and 1 cell for 3-6 k libraries). 10.43Gb clean data and 38,302 de-redundant sequences were captured. 44 unique isoforms were annotated as encoding enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. The full length flavonoid genes were characterized and their evolutional relationship and expressional pattern were analyzed. They can be divided into eight families, with a large differences in the tissue expression. The temporal expressions under MeJA treatment were also measured, 9 genes are significantly up-regulated and 2 genes are significantly down-regulated. The genes involved in flavonoid synthesis in safflower were predicted in our study. Besides, the SSR and lncRNA are also analyzed in our study.Full-length transcriptome sequences were used in our study. The genes involved in flavonoid synthesis in safflower were predicted in our study. Combined the determination of flavonoids, CtC4H2, CtCHS3, CtCHI3, CtF3H3, CtF3H1 are mainly participated in MeJA promoting the synthesis of flavonoids. Our results also provide a valuable resource for further study on safflower.


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