September 22, 2019  |  

The chromosome-level quality genome provides insights into the evolution of the biosynthesis genes for aroma compounds of Osmanthus fragrans.

Sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) is a very popular ornamental tree species throughout Southeast Asia and USA particularly for its extremely fragrant aroma. We constructed a chromosome-level reference genome of O. fragrans to assist in studies of the evolution, genetic diversity, and molecular mechanism of aroma development. A total of over 118?Gb of polished reads was produced from HiSeq (45.1?Gb) and PacBio Sequel (73.35?Gb), giving 100× depth coverage for long reads. The combination of Illumina-short reads, PacBio-long reads, and Hi-C data produced the final chromosome quality genome of O. fragrans with a genome size of 727?Mb and a heterozygosity of 1.45 %. The genome was annotated using de novo and homology comparison and further refined with transcriptome data. The genome of O. fragrans was predicted to have?45,542 genes, of which 95.68 % were functionally annotated. Genome annotation found 49.35 % as the repetitive sequences, with long terminal repeats (LTR) being the richest (28.94 %). Genome evolution analysis indicated the evidence of whole-genome duplication 15 million years ago, which contributed to the current content of 45,242 genes. Metabolic analysis revealed that linalool, a monoterpene is the main aroma compound. Based on the genome and transcriptome, we further demonstrated the direct connection between terpene synthases (TPSs) and the rich aromatic molecules in O. fragrans. We identified three new flower-specific TPS genes, of which the expression coincided with the production of linalool. Our results suggest that the high number of TPS genes and the flower tissue- and stage-specific TPS genes expressions might drive the strong unique aroma production of O. fragrans.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genomic insights into virulence mechanisms of Leishmania donovani: evidence from an atypical strain.

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease with diverse clinical phenotypes, determined by parasite, host and vector interactions. Despite the advances in molecular biology and the availability of more Leishmania genome references in recent years, the association between parasite species and distinct clinical phenotypes remains poorly understood. We present a genomic comparison of an atypical variant of Leishmania donovani from a South Asian focus, where it mostly causes cutaneous form of leishmaniasis.Clinical isolates from six cutaneous leishmaniasis patients (CL-SL); 2 of whom were poor responders to antimony (CL-PR), and two visceral leishmaniasis patients (VL-SL) were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Chromosome aneuploidy was observed in both groups but was more frequent in CL-SL. 248 genes differed by 2 fold or more in copy number among the two groups. Genes involved in amino acid use (LdBPK_271940) and energy metabolism (LdBPK_271950), predominated the VL-SL group with the same distribution pattern reflected in gene tandem arrays. Genes encoding amastins were present in higher copy numbers in VL-SL and CL-PR as well as being among predicted pseudogenes in CL-SL. Both chromosome and SNP profiles showed CL-SL and VL-SL to form two distinct groups. While expected heterozygosity was much higher in VL-SL, SNP allele frequency patterns did not suggest potential recent recombination breakpoints. The SNP/indel profile obtained using the more recently generated PacBio sequence did not vary markedly from that based on the standard LdBPK282A1 reference. Several genes previously associated with resistance to antimonials were observed in higher copy numbers in the analysis of CL-PR. H-locus amplification was seen in one cutaneous isolate which however did not belong to the CL-PR group.The data presented suggests that intra species variations at chromosome and gene level are more likely to influence differences in tropism as well as response to treatment, and contributes to greater understanding of parasite molecular mechanisms underpinning these differences. These findings should be substantiated with a larger sample number and expression/functional studies.

September 22, 2019  |  

Cryptocurrencies and Zero Mode Wave guides: An unclouded path to a more contiguous Cannabis sativa L. genome assembly

We describe the use ofa Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) to crypto- fund the single molecule sequencing and publication ofa Type ll Cannabis plant. This resulted in the construction of the most contiguous Cannabis genome assembly to date. The combined use of the Dash cryptocurrency, DAOs, and Pacific Biosciences sequencing delivered a 1.03 Gb genome with a N50 of 665Kb in 77 days from funding to public upload. This represents a 230 fold improvement in the contiguity of the first cannabis assemblies in 2011 and a 4 fold improvement over all cannabis assemblies to date. 34Gb ofadditional sequencing pushed the assembly to a N50 of 3.8Mb. Hi-C data from Phase Genomics further scaffolded the assembly to 35 contigs at an N50 of 74Mb but requires additional curation. The genome is partially phased and larger than previously reported (2N : 1.33Gb). The CBCA, THCA and CBDA synthase gene clusters have been phased onto respective contigs demonstrating tandem repeat expansions.

September 22, 2019  |  

Leishmania genome dynamics during environmental adaptation reveal strain-specific differences in gene copy number variation, karyotype instability, and telomeric amplification.

Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania adapt to environmental change through chromosome and gene copy number variations. Only little is known about external or intrinsic factors that govern Leishmania genomic adaptation. Here, by conducting longitudinal genome analyses of 10 new Leishmania clinical isolates, we uncovered important differences in gene copy number among genetically highly related strains and revealed gain and loss of gene copies as potential drivers of long-term environmental adaptation in the field. In contrast, chromosome rather than gene amplification was associated with short-term environmental adaptation to in vitro culture. Karyotypic solutions were highly reproducible but unique for a given strain, suggesting that chromosome amplification is under positive selection and dependent on species- and strain-specific intrinsic factors. We revealed a progressive increase in read depth towards the chromosome ends for various Leishmania isolates, which may represent a nonclassical mechanism of telomere maintenance that can preserve integrity of chromosome ends during selection for fast in vitro growth. Together our data draw a complex picture of Leishmania genomic adaptation in the field and in culture, which is driven by a combination of intrinsic genetic factors that generate strain-specific phenotypic variations, which are under environmental selection and allow for fitness gain.IMPORTANCE Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania cause severe human and veterinary diseases worldwide, termed leishmaniases. A hallmark of Leishmania biology is its capacity to adapt to a variety of unpredictable fluctuations inside its human host, notably pharmacological interventions, thus, causing drug resistance. Here we investigated mechanisms of environmental adaptation using a comparative genomics approach by sequencing 10 new clinical isolates of the L. donovani, L. major, and L. tropica complexes that were sampled across eight distinct geographical regions. Our data provide new evidence that parasites adapt to environmental change in the field and in culture through a combination of chromosome and gene amplification that likely causes phenotypic variation and drives parasite fitness gains in response to environmental constraints. This novel form of gene expression regulation through genomic change compensates for the absence of classical transcriptional control in these early-branching eukaryotes and opens new venues for biomarker discovery. Copyright © 2018 Bussotti et al.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genome sequences of two diploid wild relatives of cultivated sweetpotato reveal targets for genetic improvement

Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is a globally important staple food crop, especially for sub-Saharan Africa. Agronomic improvement of sweetpotato has lagged behind other major food crops due to a lack of genomic and genetic resources and inherent challenges in breeding a heterozygous, clonally propagated polyploid. Here, we report the genome sequences of its two diploid relatives, I. trifida and I. triloba, and show that these high-quality genome assemblies are robust references for hexaploid sweetpotato. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses reveal insights into the ancient whole-genome triplication history of Ipomoea and evolutionary relationships within the Batatas complex. Using resequencing data from 16 genotypes widely used in African breeding programs, genes and alleles associated with carotenoid biosynthesis in storage roots are identified, which may enable efficient breeding of varieties with high provitamin A content. These resources will facilitate genome-enabled breeding in this important food security crop.

September 22, 2019  |  

Evolutionary conservation of Y Chromosome ampliconic gene families despite extensive structural variation.

Despite claims that the mammalian Y Chromosome is on a path to extinction, comparative sequence analysis of primate Y Chromosomes has shown the decay of the ancestral single-copy genes has all but ceased in this eutherian lineage. The suite of single-copy Y-linked genes is highly conserved among the majority of eutherian Y Chromosomes due to strong purifying selection to retain dosage-sensitive genes. In contrast, the ampliconic regions of the Y Chromosome, which contain testis-specific genes that encode the majority of the transcripts on eutherian Y Chromosomes, are rapidly evolving and are thought to undergo species-specific turnover. However, ampliconic genes are known from only a handful of species, limiting insights into their long-term evolutionary dynamics. We used a clone-based sequencing approach employing both long- and short-read sequencing technologies to assemble ~2.4 Mb of representative ampliconic sequence dispersed across the domestic cat Y Chromosome, and identified the major ampliconic gene families and repeat units. We analyzed fluorescence in situ hybridization, qPCR, and whole-genome sequence data from 20 cat species and revealed that ampliconic gene families are conserved across the cat family Felidae but show high transcript diversity, copy number variation, and structural rearrangement. Our analysis of ampliconic gene evolution unveils a complex pattern of long-term gene content stability despite extensive structural variation on a nonrecombining background.© 2018 Brashear et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

September 22, 2019  |  

Regulation of yeast-to-hyphae transition in Yarrowia lipolytica.

The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica undergoes a morphological transition from yeast-to-hyphal growth in response to environmental conditions. A forward genetic screen was used to identify mutants that reliably remain in the yeast phase, which were then assessed by whole-genome sequencing. All the smooth mutants identified, so named because of their colony morphology, exhibit independent loss of DNA at a repetitive locus made up of interspersed ribosomal DNA and short 10- to 40-mer telomere-like repeats. The loss of repetitive DNA is associated with downregulation of genes with stress response elements (5′-CCCCT-3′) and upregulation of genes with cell cycle box (5′-ACGCG-3′) motifs in their promoter region. The stress response element is bound by the transcription factor Msn2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We confirmed that the Y. lipolyticamsn2 (Ylmsn2) ortholog is required for hyphal growth and found that overexpression of Ylmsn2 enables hyphal growth in smooth strains. The cell cycle box is bound by the Mbp1p/Swi6p complex in S. cerevisiae to regulate G1-to-S phase progression. We found that overexpression of either the Ylmbp1 or Ylswi6 homologs decreased hyphal growth and that deletion of either Ylmbp1 or Ylswi6 promotes hyphal growth in smooth strains. A second forward genetic screen for reversion to hyphal growth was performed with the smooth-33 mutant to identify additional genetic factors regulating hyphal growth in Y. lipolytica Thirteen of the mutants sequenced from this screen had coding mutations in five kinases, including the histidine kinases Ylchk1 and Ylnik1 and kinases of the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade Ylssk2, Ylpbs2, and Ylhog1 Together, these results demonstrate that Y. lipolytica transitions to hyphal growth in response to stress through multiple signaling pathways.IMPORTANCE Many yeasts undergo a morphological transition from yeast-to-hyphal growth in response to environmental conditions. We used forward and reverse genetic techniques to identify genes regulating this transition in Yarrowia lipolytica We confirmed that the transcription factor Ylmsn2 is required for the transition to hyphal growth and found that signaling by the histidine kinases Ylchk1 and Ylnik1 as well as the MAP kinases of the HOG pathway (Ylssk2, Ylpbs2, and Ylhog1) regulates the transition to hyphal growth. These results suggest that Y. lipolytica transitions to hyphal growth in response to stress through multiple kinase pathways. Intriguingly, we found that a repetitive portion of the genome containing telomere-like and rDNA repeats may be involved in the transition to hyphal growth, suggesting a link between this region and the general stress response. Copyright © 2018 Pomraning et al.

September 22, 2019  |  

Genomic insights into multidrug-resistance, mating and virulence in Candida auris and related emerging species.

Candida auris is an emergent multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen causing increasing reports of outbreaks. While distantly related to C. albicans and C. glabrata, C. auris is closely related to rarely observed and often multidrug-resistant species from the C. haemulonii clade. Here, we analyze near complete genome assemblies for the four C. auris clades and three related species, and map intra- and inter-species rearrangements across the seven chromosomes. Using RNA-Seq-guided gene predictions, we find that most mating and meiosis genes are conserved and that clades contain either the MTLa or MTLa mating loci. Comparing the genomes of these emerging species to those of other Candida species identifies genes linked to drug resistance and virulence, including expanded families of transporters and lipases, as well as mutations and copy number variants in ERG11. Gene expression analysis identifies transporters and metabolic regulators specific to C. auris and those conserved with related species which may contribute to differences in drug response in this emerging fungal clade.

September 22, 2019  |  

Detection and visualization of complex structural variants from long reads.

With applications in cancer, drug metabolism, and disease etiology, understanding structural variation in the human genome is critical in advancing the thrusts of individualized medicine. However, structural variants (SVs) remain challenging to detect with high sensitivity using short read sequencing technologies. This problem is exacerbated when considering complex SVs comprised of multiple overlapping or nested rearrangements. Longer reads, such as those from Pacific Biosciences platforms, often span multiple breakpoints of such events, and thus provide a way to unravel small-scale complexities in SVs with higher confidence.We present CORGi (COmplex Rearrangement detection with Graph-search), a method for the detection and visualization of complex local genomic rearrangements. This method leverages the ability of long reads to span multiple breakpoints to untangle SVs that appear very complicated with respect to a reference genome. We validated our approach against both simulated long reads, and real data from two long read sequencing technologies. We demonstrate the ability of our method to identify breakpoints inserted in synthetic data with high accuracy, and the ability to detect and plot SVs from NA12878 germline, achieving 88.4% concordance between the two sets of sequence data. The patterns of complexity we find in many NA12878 SVs match known mechanisms associated with DNA replication and structural variant formation, and highlight the ability of our method to automatically label complex SVs with an intuitive combination of adjacent or overlapping reference transformations.CORGi is a method for interrogating genomic regions suspected to contain local rearrangements using long reads. Using pairwise alignments and graph search CORGi produces labels and visualizations for local SVs of arbitrary complexity.

September 22, 2019  |  

Complete and de novo assembly of the Leishmania braziliensis (M2904) genome.

Leishmania braziliensis is the etiological agent of American mucosal leishmaniasis, one of the most severe clinical forms of leishmaniasis. Here, we report the assembly of the L. braziliensis (M2904) genome into 35 continuous chromosomes. Also, the annotation of 8395 genes is provided. The public availability of this information will contribute to a better knowledge of this pathogen and help in the search for vaccines and novel drug targets aimed to control the disease caused by this Leishmania species.

September 22, 2019  |  

Glyphosate resistance and EPSPS gene duplication: Convergent evolution in multiple plant species.

One of the increasingly widespread mechanisms of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate is copy number variation (CNV) of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene. EPSPS gene duplication has been reported in eight weed species, ranging from 3-5 extra copies to more than 150 extra copies. In the case of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a section of >300 kb containing EPSPS and many other genes has been replicated and inserted at new loci throughout the genome, resulting in significant increase in total genome size. The replicated sequence contains several classes of mobile genetic elements including helitrons, raising the intriguing possibility of extra-chromosomal replication of the EPSPS-containing sequence. In kochia (Kochia scoparia), from three to more than 10 extra EPSPS copies are arranged as a tandem gene duplication at one locus. In the remaining six weed species that exhibit EPSPS gene duplication, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of gene duplication or their entire sequence. There is mounting evidence that adaptive gene amplification is an important mode of evolution in the face of intense human-mediated selection pressure. The convergent evolution of CNVs for glyphosate resistance in weeds, through at least two different mechanisms, may be indicative of a more general importance for this mechanism of adaptation in plants. CNVs warrant further investigation across plant functional genomics for adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly for adaptive evolution on rapid time scales.© The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

September 21, 2019  |  

Discovery and genotyping of structural variation from long-read haploid genome sequence data.

In an effort to more fully understand the full spectrum of human genetic variation, we generated deep single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing data from two haploid human genomes. By using an assembly-based approach (SMRT-SV), we systematically assessed each genome independently for structural variants (SVs) and indels resolving the sequence structure of 461,553 genetic variants from 2 bp to 28 kbp in length. We find that >89% of these variants have been missed as part of analysis of the 1000 Genomes Project even after adjusting for more common variants (MAF > 1%). We estimate that this theoretical human diploid differs by as much as ~16 Mbp with respect to the human reference, with long-read sequencing data providing a fivefold increase in sensitivity for genetic variants ranging in size from 7 bp to 1 kbp compared with short-read sequence data. Although a large fraction of genetic variants were not detected by short-read approaches, once the alternate allele is sequence-resolved, we show that 61% of SVs can be genotyped in short-read sequence data sets with high accuracy. Uncoupling discovery from genotyping thus allows for the majority of this missed common variation to be genotyped in the human population. Interestingly, when we repeat SV detection on a pseudodiploid genome constructed in silico by merging the two haploids, we find that ~59% of the heterozygous SVs are no longer detected by SMRT-SV. These results indicate that haploid resolution of long-read sequencing data will significantly increase sensitivity of SV detection.© 2017 Huddleston et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

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