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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Using XCAVATOR and EXCAVATOR2 to Identify CNVs from WGS, WES, and TS Data.

Copy Number Variants (CNVs) are structural rearrangements contributing to phenotypic variation but also associated with many disease states. In recent years, the identification of CNVs from high-throughput sequencing experiments has become a common practice for both research and clinical purposes. Several computational methods have been developed so far. In this unit, we describe and give instructions on how to run two read count-based tools, XCAVATOR and EXCAVATOR2, which are tailored for the detection of both germline and somatic CNVs from different sequencing experiments (whole-genome, whole-exome, and targeted) in various disease contexts and population genetic studies. © 2018 by John Wiley…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Human copy number variants are enriched in regions of low mappability.

Copy number variants (CNVs) are known to affect a large portion of the human genome and have been implicated in many diseases. Although whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can help identify CNVs, most analytical methods suffer from limited sensitivity and specificity, especially in regions of low mappability. To address this, we use PopSV, a CNV caller that relies on multiple samples to control for technical variation. We demonstrate that our calls are stable across different types of repeat-rich regions and validate the accuracy of our predictions using orthogonal approaches. Applying PopSV to 640 human genomes, we find that low-mappability regions are approximately…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Linking genotype and phenotype in an economically viable propionic acid biosynthesis process

Propionic acid (PA) is used as a food preservative and increasingly, as a precursor for the synthesis of monomers. PA is produced mainly through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene, also known as the `oxo-process’; however, Propionibacterium species are promising biological PA producers natively producing PA as their main fermentation product. However, for fermentation to be competitive, a PA yield of at least 0.6 g/g is required.

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole genome sequencing, de novo assembly and phenotypic profiling for the new budding yeast species Saccharomyces jurei.

Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex consist of yeast species, which are not only important in the fermentation industry but are also model systems for genomic and ecological analysis. Here, we present the complete genome assemblies of Saccharomyces jurei, a newly discovered Saccharomyces sensu stricto species from high altitude oaks. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis revealed that S. jurei is more closely related to S. mikatae, than S. cerevisiae, and S. paradoxus The karyotype of S. jurei presents two reciprocal chromosomal translocations between chromosome VI/VII and I/XIII when compared to the S. cerevisiae genome. Interestingly, while the rearrangement I/XIII is unique to S.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Optical and physical mapping with local finishing enables megabase-scale resolution of agronomically important regions in the wheat genome.

Numerous scaffold-level sequences for wheat are now being released and, in this context, we report on a strategy for improving the overall assembly to a level comparable to that of the human genome.Using chromosome 7A of wheat as a model, sequence-finished megabase-scale sections of this chromosome were established by combining a new independent assembly using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map, BAC pool paired-end sequencing, chromosome-arm-specific mate-pair sequencing and Bionano optical mapping with the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium RefSeq v1.0 sequence and its underlying raw data. The combined assembly results in 18 super-scaffolds across the chromosome. The value…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Whole-genome resequencing and pan-transcriptome reconstruction highlight the impact of genomic structural Variation on secondary metabolite gene clusters in the grapevine Esca pathogen Phaeoacremonium minimum.

The Ascomycete fungus Phaeoacremonium minimum is one of the primary causal agents of Esca, a widespread and damaging grapevine trunk disease. Variation in virulence among Pm. minimum isolates has been reported, but the underlying genetic basis of the phenotypic variability remains unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize intraspecific genetic diversity and explore its potential impact on virulence functions associated with secondary metabolism, cellular transport, and cell wall decomposition. We generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly, using single molecule real-time sequencing, and resequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of multiple isolates to identify sequence and structural polymorphisms. Numerous insertion and…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Ring synthetic chromosome V SCRaMbLE.

Structural variations (SVs) exert important functional impacts on biological phenotypic diversity. Here we show a ring synthetic yeast chromosome V (ring_synV) can be used to continuously generate complex genomic variations and improve the production of prodeoxyviolacein (PDV) by applying Synthetic Chromosome Recombination and Modification by LoxP-mediated Evolution (SCRaMbLE) in haploid yeast cells. The SCRaMbLE of ring_synV generates aneuploid yeast strains with increased PDV productivity, and we identify aneuploid chromosome I, III, VI, XII, XIII, and ring_synV. The neochromosome of SCRaMbLEd ring_synV generated more unbalanced forms of variations, including duplication, insertions, and balanced forms of translocations and inversions than its linear…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

B chromosomes of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) contribute to genome variations at the level of individuals and populations.

The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is a bony fish from the Latidae family, which is widely distributed in the tropical Indo-West Pacific region. The karyotype of the Asian seabass contains 24 pairs of A chromosomes and a variable number of AT- and GC-rich B chromosomes (Bchrs or Bs). Dot-like shaped and nucleolus-associated AT-rich Bs were microdissected and sequenced earlier. Here we analyzed DNA fragments from Bs to determine their repeat and gene contents using the Asian seabass genome as a reference. Fragments of 75 genes, including an 18S rRNA gene, were found in the Bs; repeats represented 2% of the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Structural variants exhibit allelic heterogeneity and shape variation in complex traits

Despite extensive effort to reveal the genetic basis of complex phenotypic variation, studies typically explain only a fraction of trait heritability. It has been hypothesized that individually rare hidden structural variants (SVs) could account for a significant fraction of variation in complex traits. To investigate this hypothesis, we assembled 14 Drosophila melanogaster genomes and systematically identified more than 20,000 euchromatic SVs, of which ~40% are invisible to high specificity short read genotyping approaches. SVs are common in Drosophila genes, with almost one third of diploid individuals harboring an SV in genes larger than 5kb, and nearly a quarter harboring multiple…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic assemblies of newly sequenced Trypanosoma cruzi strains reveal new genomic expansion and greater complexity.

Chagas disease is a complex illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi displaying highly diverse clinical outcomes. In this sense, the genome sequence elucidation and comparison between strains may lead to disease understanding. Here, two new T. cruzi strains, have been sequenced, Y using Illumina and Bug2148 using PacBio, assembled, analyzed and compared with the T. cruzi annotated genomes available to date. The assembly stats from the new sequences show effective improvement of T. cruzi genome over the actual ones. Such as, the largest contig assembled (1.3?Mb in Bug2148) in de novo attempts and the highest mean assembly coverage (71X…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Multi-population genomic analysis of malaria parasites indicates local selection and differentiation at the gdv1 locus regulating sexual development.

Parasites infect hosts in widely varying environments, encountering diverse challenges for adaptation. To identify malaria parasite genes under locally divergent selection across a large endemic region with a wide spectrum of transmission intensity, genome sequences were obtained from 284 clinical Plasmodium falciparum infections from four newly sampled locations in Senegal, The Gambia, Mali and Guinea. Combining these with previous data from seven other sites in West Africa enabled a multi-population analysis to identify discrete loci under varying local selection. A genome-wide scan showed the most exceptional geographical divergence to be at the early gametocyte gene locus gdv1 which is essential…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic structural variations within five continental populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

Chromosomal structural variations (SV) including insertions, deletions, inversions, and translocations occur within the genome and can have a significant effect on organismal phenotype. Some of these effects are caused by structural variations containing genes. Large structural variations represent a significant amount of the genetic diversity within a population. We used a global sampling of Drosophila melanogaster (Ithaca, Zimbabwe, Beijing, Tasmania, and Netherlands) to represent diverse populations within the species. We used long-read sequencing and optical mapping technologies to identify SVs in these genomes. Among the five lines examined, we found an average of 2,928 structural variants within these genomes. These…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Loss of bacitracin resistance due to a large genomic deletion among Bacillus anthracis strains.

Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive endospore-forming bacterial species that causes anthrax in both humans and animals. In Zambia, anthrax cases are frequently reported in both livestock and wildlife, with occasional transmission to humans, causing serious public health problems in the country. To understand the genetic diversity of B. anthracis strains in Zambia, we sequenced and compared the genomic DNA of B. anthracis strains isolated across the country. Single nucleotide polymorphisms clustered these strains into three groups. Genome sequence comparisons revealed a large deletion in strains belonging to one of the groups, possibly due to unequal crossing over between a pair…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A complete Cannabis chromosome assembly and adaptive admixture for elevated cannabidiol (CBD) content

Cannabis has been cultivated for millennia with distinct cultivars providing either fiber and grain or tetrahydrocannabinol. Recent demand for cannabidiol rather than tetrahydrocannabinol has favored the breeding of admixed cultivars with extremely high cannabidiol content. Despite several draft Cannabis genomes, the genomic structure of cannabinoid synthase loci has remained elusive. A genetic map derived from a tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol segregating population and a complete chromosome assembly from a high-cannabidiol cultivar together resolve the linkage of cannabidiolic and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase gene clusters which are associated with transposable elements. High-cannabidiol cultivars appear to have been generated by integrating hemp-type cannabidiolic acid synthase gene…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Physiological genomics of dietary adaptation in a marine herbivorous fish

Adopting a new diet is a significant evolutionary change and can profoundly affect an animaltextquoterights physiology, biochemistry, ecology, and its genome. To study this evolutionary transition, we investigated the physiology and genomics of digestion of a derived herbivorous fish, the monkeyface prickleback (Cebidichthys violaceus). We sequenced and assembled its genome and digestive transcriptome and revealed the molecular changes related to important dietary enzymes, finding abundant evidence for adaptation at the molecular level. In this species, two gene families experienced expansion in copy number and adaptive amino acid substitutions. These families, amylase, and bile salt activated lipase, are involved digestion of…

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