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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Adaptation and Phenotypic Diversification in Arabidopsis through Loss-of-Function Mutations in Protein-Coding Genes.

According to the less-is-more hypothesis, gene loss is an engine for evolutionary change. Loss-of-function (LoF) mutations resulting in the natural knockout of protein-coding genes not only provide information about gene function but also play important roles in adaptation and phenotypic diversification. Although the less-is-more hypothesis was proposed two decades ago, it remains to be explored on a large scale. In this study, we identified 60,819 LoF variants in 1071 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genomes and found that 34% of Arabidopsis protein-coding genes annotated in the Columbia-0 genome do not have any LoF variants. We found that nucleotide diversity, transposable element density,…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

SMRT long reads and Direct Label and Stain optical maps allow the generation of a high-quality genome assembly for the European barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica).

The barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is a migratory bird that has been the focus of a large number of ecological, behavioral, and genetic studies. To facilitate further population genetics and genomic studies, we present a reference genome assembly for the European subspecies (H. r. rustica).As part of the Genome10K effort on generating high-quality vertebrate genomes (Vertebrate Genomes Project), we have assembled a highly contiguous genome assembly using single molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing and several Bionano optical map technologies. We compared and integrated optical maps derived from both the Nick, Label, Repair, and Stain technology and from the Direct Label…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Comparative genome analysis provides novel insight into the interaction of Aquimarina sp. AD1, BL5 and AD10 with their macroalgal host.

The Aquimarina genus is widely distributed throughout the marine environment, however little is understood regarding its ecological role, particularly when in association with eukaryotic hosts. Here, we examine the genomes of two opportunistic pathogens, Aquimarina sp. AD1 and BL5, and a non-pathogenic strain Aquimarina sp. AD10, that were isolated from diseased individuals of the red alga Delisea pulchra. Each strain encodes multiple genes for the degradation of marine carbohydrates and vitamin biosynthesis. These traits are hypothesised to promote nutrient exchange between the Aquimarina strains and their algal host, facilitating a close symbiotic relationship. Moreover, each strain harbours the necessary genes…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The complete genome sequence of the denitrifying bacterium Marinobacter sp. Arc7-DN-1 isolated from Arctic Ocean sediment

The general features and genome characteristics of the denitrifying bacterium Marinobacter sp. Arc7-DN-1, isolated from Arctic Ocean sediment, are described. Marinobacter sp. Arc7-DN-1 uses NO3- or NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source to grow at low temperatures. The strain can grow at a wide range of temperatures (0–30?°C) and NaCl concentration (15–90‰). The genome has one circular chromosome of 4,300,456?bp (57.64?mol%?G?+?C content), consisting of 4012 coding genes, including 50 tRNAs and three rRNA operons as 16S-23S-5S rRNA. On the basis of the KEGG analysis, strain Arc7-DN-1 encodes 43 proteins related to nitrogen metabolism, including a complete denitrifying pathway and an…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Wild relatives of maize

Crop domestication changed the course of human evolution, and domestication of maize (Zea mays L. subspecies mays), today the world’s most important crop, enabled civilizations to flourish and has played a major role in shaping the world we know today. Archaeological and ethnobotanical research help us understand the development of the cultures and the movements of the peoples who carried maize to new areas where it continued to adapt. Ancient remains of maize cobs and kernels have been found in the place of domestication, the Balsas River Valley (~9,000 years before present era), and the cultivation center, the Tehuacan Valley…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome analysis of the rice coral Montipora capitata.

Corals comprise a biomineralizing cnidarian, dinoflagellate algal symbionts, and associated microbiome of prokaryotes and viruses. Ongoing efforts to conserve coral reefs by identifying the major stress response pathways and thereby laying the foundation to select resistant genotypes rely on a robust genomic foundation. Here we generated and analyzed a high quality long-read based ~886 Mbp nuclear genome assembly and transcriptome data from the dominant rice coral, Montipora capitata from Hawai’i. Our work provides insights into the architecture of coral genomes and shows how they differ in size and gene inventory, putatively due to population size variation. We describe a recent…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Development of a metabolic pathway transfer and genomic integration system for the syngas-fermenting bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii.

Clostridium spp. can synthesize valuable chemicals and fuels by utilizing diverse waste-stream substrates, including starchy biomass, lignocellulose, and industrial waste gases. However, metabolic engineering in Clostridium spp. is challenging due to the low efficiency of gene transfer and genomic integration of entire biosynthetic pathways.We have developed a reliable gene transfer and genomic integration system for the syngas-fermenting bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii based on the conjugal transfer of donor plasmids containing large transgene cassettes (>?5 kb) followed by the inducible activation of Himar1 transposase to promote integration. We established a conjugation protocol for the efficient generation of transconjugants using the Gram-positive origins of…

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