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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Chimeras link to tandem repeats and transposable elements in tetraploid hybrid fish

Abstract The formation of the allotetraploid hybrid lineage (4nAT) encompasses both distant hybridization and polyploidization processes. The allotetraploid offspring have two sets of sub-genomes inherited from both parental species and therefore it is important to explore its genetic structure. Herein, we construct a bacterial artificial chromosome library of allotetraploids, and then sequence and analyze the full-length sequences of 19 bacterial artificial chromosomes. Sixty-eight DNA chimeras are identified, which are divided into four models according to the distribution of the genomic DNA derived from the parents. Among the 68 genetic chimeras, 44 (64.71%) are linked to tandem repeats (TRs) and 23…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A complete toolset for the study of Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. as a fungal-temperate grass pathosystem.

Due to their economic relevance, the study of plant pathogen interactions is of importance. However, elucidating these interactions and their underlying molecular mechanisms remains challenging since both host and pathogen need to be fully genetically accessible organisms. Here we present milestones in the establishment of a new biotrophic model pathosystem: Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. We provide a complete toolset, including an annotated fungal genome and methods for genetic manipulation of the fungus and its host plant. This toolset will enable researchers to easily study biotrophic interactions at the molecular level on both the pathogen and the host side. Moreover,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

ReMILO: reference assisted misassembly detection algorithm using short and long reads.

Contigs assembled from the second generation sequencing short reads may contain misassemblies, and thus complicate downstream analysis or even lead to incorrect analysis results. Fortunately, with more and more sequenced species available, it becomes possible to use the reference genome of a closely related species to detect misassemblies. In addition, long reads of the third generation sequencing technology have been more and more widely used, and can also help detect misassemblies.Here, we introduce ReMILO, a reference assisted misassembly detection algorithm that uses both short reads and PacBio SMRT long reads. ReMILO aligns the initial short reads to both the contigs…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Current advances in genome sequencing of common wheat and its ancestral species

Common wheat is an important and widely cultivated food crop throughout the world. Much progress has been made in regard to wheat genome sequencing in the last decade. Starting from the sequencing of single chromosomes/chromosome arms whole genome sequences of common wheat and its diploid and tetraploid ancestors have been decoded along with the development of sequencing and assembling technologies. In this review, we give a brief summary on international progress in wheat genome sequencing, and mainly focus on reviewing the effort and contributions made by Chinese scientists.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of “Thiodictyon syntrophicum” sp. nov. strain Cad16T, a photolithoautotrophic purple sulfur bacterium isolated from the alpine meromictic Lake Cadagno.

Thiodictyon syntrophicum sp. nov. strain Cad16T is a photoautotrophic purple sulfur bacterium belonging to the family of Chromatiaceae in the class of Gammaproteobacteria. The type strain Cad16T was isolated from the chemocline of the alpine meromictic Lake Cadagno in Switzerland. Strain Cad16T represents a key species within this sulfur-driven bacterial ecosystem with respect to carbon fixation. The 7.74-Mbp genome of strain Cad16T has been sequenced and annotated. It encodes 6237 predicted protein sequences and 59 RNA sequences. Phylogenetic comparison based on 16S rRNA revealed that Thiodictyon elegans strain DSM 232T the most closely related species. Genes involved in sulfur oxidation,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome size estimation of Chinese cultured artemisia annua L.

Almost all of antimalarial artemisinin is extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. However, under the condition of insufficient genomic in- formation and unresolved genetic backgrounds, regulatory mechanism of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway has not yet been clear. The genome size of genuine A. annua plants is an especially important and fundamental parameter, which helpful for further insight into genomic studies of ar- temisinin biosynthesis and improvement. In current study, all those genome sizes of A. annua samples collected with Barcoding identification were evaluated to be 1.38-1.49 Gb by Flow Cytometry (FCM) with Nipponbare as the bench- mark…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis SLPE1-3, a novel lactic acid bacterium causing postharvest decay of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis is a pathogenic bacterium causing postharvest decay of the cultivated mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, whose pathogenic mechanism is little known. Sequencing of its complete genome is a prerequisite for revealing the molecular mechanism of infection. In this research, the complete genome of SLPE1-3 was obtained using the Single Molecular Real Time (SMRT) sequencing strategy. The genome was analyzed both structurally and functionally. The complete genome of SLPE1-3 consists of a single, circular chromosome (2,522,493 bp; 34.91% GC content) without any plasmid. The results showed the feasibility and superiority of SMRT in bacterial complete-genome research. The genome of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Fe-S cluster assembly in oxymonads and related protists.

The oxymonad Monocercomonoides exilis was recently reported to be the first eukaryote that has completely lost the mitochondrial compartment. It was proposed that an important prerequisite for such a radical evolutionary step was the acquisition of the SUF Fe-S cluster assembly pathway from prokaryotes, making the mitochondrial ISC pathway dispensable. We have investigated genomic and transcriptomic data from six oxymonad species and their relatives, composing the group Preaxostyla (Metamonada, Excavata), for the presence and absence of enzymes involved in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. None possesses enzymes of mitochondrial ISC pathway and all apparently possess the SUF pathway, composed of SufB, C,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Measuring the mappability spectrum of reference genome assemblies

The ability to infer actionable information from genomic variation data in a resequencing experiment relies on accurately aligning the sequences to a reference genome. However, this accuracy is inherently limited by the quality of the reference assembly and the repetitive content of the subject’s genome. As long read sequencing technologies become more widespread, it is crucial to investigate the expected improvements in alignment accuracy and variant analysis over existing short read methods. The ability to quantify the read length and error rate necessary to uniquely map regions of interest in a sequence allows users to make informed decisions regarding experiment…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Reference genes for RT-qPCR normalisation in different tissues, developmental stages and stress conditions of Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum perforatum is a widely known medicinal herb used mostly as a remedy for depression because of its abundant secondary metabolites. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an optimized method for the efficient and reliable quantification of gene expression studies. In general, reference genes are used in qRT-PCR analysis because of their known or suspected housekeeping roles. However, their expression level cannot be assumed to remain stable under all possible experimental conditions. Thus, the identification of high quality reference genes is very necessary for the interpretation of qRT-PCR data. In this study, we investigated the expression of fourteen candidate genes, including…

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