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Sunday, October 25, 2020

AGBT Virtual Poster: Mind the gap – upgrading reference genomes with Pacific Biosciences RS long read sequencing technology

Adam English, lead bioinformatics programmer at Baylor College of Medicine, discusses challenges with resolving gaps in high-quality draft genome assemblies. Sequencing biases, repetitive genomic features, genomic polymorphism, and other complicating factors all come together to make some regions difficult or impossible to assemble. For more facile assembly and automated finishing of draft genomes, he presents an automated approach to finishing using long reads from the PacBio System. The tool PBJelly automates the finishing process using long sequence reads in a reference-guided assembly process. Using PBJelly and SMRT Sequencing, they upgraded the draft genome sequences of a simulated Drosophila melanogaster, the version…

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

PAG PacBio Workshop: Conservation genomics of a critically endangered Hawaiian bird: A high quality genome assembly of the ‘alala will assist in population management and reintroduction

Oliver Ryder speaks about efforts to rescue the Hawaiian crow, a bird that has been extinct in the wild since 2002, and reintroduce it to its native habitat. Critical to this work is a new SMRT Sequencing reference genome assembly, which Ryder says is already one of the best avian assemblies out there. The resource may help deal with challenges like inbreeding and disease susceptibility.

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

PAG Conference: An extreme metabolism: Iso-Seq analysis of the ruby-throated hummingbird transcriptome

Winston Timp from Johns Hopkins University studies the metabolism of hummingbirds, which sustain the highest metabolic rates among all vertebrates. Notably, hummingbirds can switch rapidly between a fuel of lipids to newly ingested sugars. This remarkable metabolism is supported by enzymes which operate at the extreme limit of catalytic efficiency. Understanding the molecular basis of enzymatic action will provide a foundation enabling rational engineering of metabolic circuits in other systems. To do this, Dr. Timp and his team generated a de novo transcriptome of the hummingbird liver using the Iso-Seq method. Characterization of the resulting protein coding sequences provides clues…

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Sunday, October 25, 2020

Webinar: SMRT Sequencing applications in plant and animal sciences: an overview

In this webinar, Emily Hatas of PacBio shares information about the applications and benefits of SMRT Sequencing in plant and animal biology, agriculture, and industrial research fields. This session contains an overview of several applications: whole-genome sequencing for de novo assembly; transcript isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) method for genome annotation; targeted sequencing solutions; and metagenomics and microbial interactions. High-level workflows and best practices are discussed for key applications.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

A bird’s white-eye view on neosex chromosome evolution

Chromosomal organization is relatively stable among avian species, especially with regards to sex chromosomes. Members of the large Sylvioidea clade however have a pair of neo-sex chromosomes which is unique to this clade and originate from a parallel translocation of a region of the ancestral 4A chromosome on both W and Z chromosomes. Here, we took advantage of this unusual event to study the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. To do so, we sequenced a female (ZW) of two Sylvioidea species, a Zosterops borbonicus and a Z. pallidus. Then, we organized the Z. borbonicus scaffolds along chromosomes and annotated…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Insect genomes: progress and challenges.

In the wake of constant improvements in sequencing technologies, numerous insect genomes have been sequenced. Currently, 1219 insect genome-sequencing projects have been registered with the National Center for Biotechnology Information, including 401 that have genome assemblies and 155 with an official gene set of annotated protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis showed that the expansion or contraction of gene families was associated with well-studied physiological traits such as immune system, metabolic detoxification, parasitism and polyphagy in insects. Here, we summarize the progress of insect genome sequencing, with an emphasis on how this impacts research on pest control. We begin with a…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Morphological and genomic characterisation of the hybrid schistosome infecting humans in Europe reveals a complex admixture between Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma bovis parasites

Schistosomes cause schistosomiasis, the worldtextquoterights second most important parasitic disease after malaria. A peculiar feature of schistosomes is their ability to produce viable and fertile hybrids. Originally only present in the tropics, schistosomiasis is now also endemic in Europe. Based on two genetic markers the European species had been identified as a hybrid between the ruminant-infective Schistosoma bovis and the human-infective Schistosoma haematobium.Here we describe for the first time the genomic composition of the European schistosome hybrid (77% of S. haematobium and 23% of S. bovis origins), its morphometric parameters and its compatibility with the European vector snail and intermediate…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome sequence analysis of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from mice caught on poultry farms in the mid 1990s.

A total of 91 draft genome sequences were used to analyze isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis obtained from feral mice caught on poultry farms in Pennsylvania. One objective was to find mutations disrupting open reading frames (ORFs) and another was to determine if ORF-disruptive mutations were present in isolates obtained from other sources. A total of 83 mice were obtained between 1995-1998. Isolates separated into two genomic clades and 12 subgroups due to 742 mutations. Nineteen ORF-disruptive mutations were found, and in addition, bigA had exceptional heterogeneity requiring additional evaluation. The TRAMS algorithm detected only 6 ORF disruptions. The…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Leisingera aquamixtae R2C4, Isolated from a Self-Regenerating Biocathode Consortium.

Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Leisingera aquamixtae R2C4, isolated from the electroautotrophic microbial consortium biocathode MCL (Marinobacter-Chromatiaceae-Labrenzia). As an isolate of a current-producing system, the genome sequence of L. aquamixtae will yield insights regarding electrode-associated microorganisms and communities. A dark pigment is also observed during cultivation.Copyright © 2019 Bird et al.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Salmonella Genomic Island 3 Is an Integrative and Conjugative Element and Contributes to Copper and Arsenic Tolerance of Salmonella enterica.

Salmonella genomic island 3 (SGI3) was first described as a chromosomal island in Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:-, a monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The SGI3 DNA sequence detected from Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- isolated in Japan was identical to that of a previously reported one across entire length of 81?kb. SGI3 consists of 86 open reading frames, including a copper homeostasis and silver resistance island (CHASRI) and an arsenic tolerance operon, in addition to genes related to conjugative transfer and DNA replication or partitioning, suggesting that the island is a mobile genetic element. We successfully selected transconjugants that acquired SGI3…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The blaNDM-1-Carrying IncA/C2 Plasmid Underlies Structural Alterations and Cointegrate Formation In Vivo.

In 2012, a carbapenemase-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolate carrying a blaNDM-1 multiresistance IncA/C2 plasmid, apart from IncHI2 and ColE-like plasmids, was detected in a wild bird in Germany. In a recent broiler chicken infection study, we observed transfer of this blaNDM-1-carrying IncA/C2 plasmid to other Enterobacteriaceae Here, we focused on the stability of this plasmid and gained insight into the type and frequency of its structural alterations after an in vivo passage in a broiler chicken infection study.Copyright © 2019 Hadziabdic et al.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Divergent evolution in the genomes of closely related lacertids, Lacerta viridis and L. bilineata, and implications for speciation.

Lacerta viridis and Lacerta bilineata are sister species of European green lizards (eastern and western clades, respectively) that, until recently, were grouped together as the L. viridis complex. Genetic incompatibilities were observed between lacertid populations through crossing experiments, which led to the delineation of two separate species within the L. viridis complex. The population history of these sister species and processes driving divergence are unknown. We constructed the first high-quality de novo genome assemblies for both L. viridis and L. bilineata through Illumina and PacBio sequencing, with annotation support provided from transcriptome sequencing of several tissues. To estimate gene flow…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Inter-chromosomal coupling between vision and pigmentation genes during genomic divergence.

Recombination between loci underlying mate choice and ecological traits is a major evolutionary force acting against speciation with gene flow. The evolution of linkage disequilibrium between such loci is therefore a fundamental step in the origin of species. Here, we show that this process can take place in the absence of physical linkage in hamlets-a group of closely related reef fishes from the wider Caribbean that differ essentially in colour pattern and are reproductively isolated through strong visually-based assortative mating. Using full-genome analysis, we identify four narrow genomic intervals that are consistently differentiated among sympatric species in a backdrop of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Origin and evolution of the octoploid strawberry genome.

Cultivated strawberry emerged from the hybridization of two wild octoploid species, both descendants from the merger of four diploid progenitor species into a single nucleus more than 1 million years ago. Here we report a near-complete chromosome-scale assembly for cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria?×?ananassa) and uncovered the origin and evolutionary processes that shaped this complex allopolyploid. We identified the extant relatives of each diploid progenitor species and provide support for the North American origin of octoploid strawberry. We examined the dynamics among the four subgenomes in octoploid strawberry and uncovered the presence of a single dominant subgenome with significantly greater gene…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

RADAR-seq: A RAre DAmage and Repair sequencing method for detecting DNA damage on a genome-wide scale.

RAre DAmage and Repair sequencing (RADAR-seq) is a highly adaptable sequencing method that enables the identification and detection of rare DNA damage events for a wide variety of DNA lesions at single-molecule resolution on a genome-wide scale. In RADAR-seq, DNA lesions are replaced with a patch of modified bases that can be directly detected by Pacific Biosciences Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing. RADAR-seq enables dynamic detection over a wide range of DNA damage frequencies, including low physiological levels. Furthermore, without the need for DNA amplification and enrichment steps, RADAR-seq provides sequencing coverage of damaged and undamaged DNA across an entire…

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