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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genome-wide researches and applications on Dendrobium.

This review summarizes current knowledge of chromosome characterization, genetic mapping, genomic sequencing, quality formation, floral transition, propagation, and identification in Dendrobium. The widely distributed Dendrobium has been studied for a long history, due to its important economic values in both medicine and ornamental. In recent years, some species of Dendrobium and other orchids had been reported on genomic sequences, using the next-generation sequencing technology. And the chloroplast genomes of many Dendrobium species were also revealed. The chromosomes of most Dendrobium species belong to mini-chromosomes, and showed 2n?=?38. Only a few of genetic studies were reported in Dendrobium. After revealing of…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Coix lacryma-jobi L.(Poaceae), a cereal and medicinal crop

Coix lacryma-jobi is a cereal and medicinal crop belonging to the Poaceae family. This study characterized complete chloroplast genome sequence of a Korean cultivar Johyun of C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen through the de novo hybrid assembly with Illumina and PacBio genomic reads. The chloroplast genome is 140,863?bp long and composed of large single copy (82,827?bp), small single copy (12,522?bp), and a pair of inverted repeats (each 22,757?bp). A total of 123 genes including 87 protein-coding genes, 32 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes were predicted in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed a close relationship of C. lacryma-jobi with species in…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Complete genomic analysis of a kingdom crossing Klebsiella variicola isolate.

Bacterial isolate X39 was isolated from a community-acquired pneumonia patient in Beijing, China. A phylogenetic tree based on rpoB genes and average nucleotide identity data confirmed that isolate X39 belonged to Klebsiella variicola. The genome of K. variicola X39 contained one circular chromosome and nine plasmids. Comparative genomic analyses with other K. variicola isolates revealed that K. variicola X39 contained the most unique genes. Of these unique genes, many were prophages and transposases. Many virulence factors were shared between K. variicola X39 and Klebsiella pneumoniae F1. The pathogenicity of K. variicola X39 was compared with that of K. pneumoniae F1…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Discovery of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in a highly virulent Escherichia coli lineage.

Resistance to last-line polymyxins mediated by the plasmid-borne mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) represents a new threat to global human health. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an mcr-1-positive multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain (MS8345). We show that MS8345 belongs to serotype O2:K1:H4, has a large 241,164-bp IncHI2 plasmid that carries 15 other antibiotic resistance genes (including the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase blaCTX-M-1) and 3 putative multidrug efflux systems, and contains 14 chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes. MS8345 also carries a large ColV-like virulence plasmid that has been associated with E. coli bacteremia. Whole-genome phylogeny revealed that MS8345 clusters within a…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

An introduced crop plant is driving diversification of the virulent bacterial pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila.

Erwinia tracheiphila is the causal agent of bacterial wilt of cucurbits, an economically important phytopathogen affecting an economically important phytopathogen affecting few cultivated Cucurbitaceae few cultivated Cucurbitaceae host plant species in temperate eastern North America. However, essentially nothing is known about E. tracheiphila population structure or genetic diversity. To address this shortcoming, a representative collection of 88 E. tracheiphila isolates was gathered from throughout its geographic range, and their genomes were sequenced. Phylogenomic analysis revealed three genetic clusters with distinct hrpT3SS virulence gene repertoires, host plant association patterns, and geographic distributions. Low genetic heterogeneity within each cluster suggests a recent…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

pYR4 from a Norwegian isolate of Yersinia ruckeri is a putative virulence plasmid encoding both a type IV pilus and a type IV secretion system

Enteric redmouth disease caused by the pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a significant problem for fish farming around the world. Despite its importance, only a few virulence factors of Y. ruckeri have been identified and studied in detail. Here, we report and analyze the complete DNA sequence of pYR4, a plasmid from a highly pathogenic Norwegian Y. ruckeri isolate, sequenced using PacBio SMRT technology. Like the well-known pYV plasmid of human pathogenic Yersiniae, pYR4 is a member of the IncFII family. Thirty-one percent of the pYR4 sequence is unique compared to other Y. ruckeri plasmids. The unique regions contain, among others…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

A continuous genome assembly of the corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops).

The wrasses (Labridae) are one of the most successful and species-rich families of the Perciformes order of teleost fish. Its members display great morphological diversity, and occupy distinct trophic levels in coastal waters and coral reefs. The cleaning behaviour displayed by some wrasses, such as corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), is of particular interest for the salmon aquaculture industry to combat and control sea lice infestation as an alternative to chemicals and pharmaceuticals. There are still few genome assemblies available within this fish family for comparative and functional studies, despite the rapid increase in genome resources generated during the past years.…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genomic analysis of multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis associated with neonatal sepsis.

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), such as Staphylococcus capitis, are major causes of bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Recently, a distinct clone of S. capitis (designated S. capitis NRCS-A) has emerged as an important pathogen in NICUs internationally. Here, 122 S. capitis isolates from New Zealand (NZ) underwent whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and these data were supplemented with publicly available S. capitis sequence reads. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses were performed, as were phenotypic assessments of antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and plasmid segregational stability on representative isolates. A distinct lineage of S. capitis was identified in NZ associated with neonates…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Plasmid and chromosomal integration of four novel blaIMP-carrying transposons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and an Enterobacter sp.

To provide detailed genetic characterization of four novel blaIMP-carrying transposons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and an Enterobacter sp.P. aeruginosa 60512, K. pneumoniae 447, P. aeruginosa 12939 and Enterobacter sp. A1137 were subjected to genome sequencing. The complete nucleotide sequences of two plasmids (p60512-IMP from the 60512 isolate and p447-IMP from the 447 isolate) and two chromosomes (the 12939 and A1137 isolates) were determined, then a genomic comparison of p60512-IMP, p447-IMP and four novel blaIMP-carrying transposons (Tn6394, Tn6375, Tn6411 and Tn6397) with related sequences was performed. Transferability of the blaIMP gene and bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility were tested.Tn6394 and Tn6375 were…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Full-length extension of HLA allele sequences by HLA allele-specific hemizygous Sanger sequencing (SSBT).

The gold standard for typing at the allele level of the highly polymorphic Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) gene system is sequence based typing. Since sequencing strategies have mainly focused on identification of the peptide binding groove, full-length sequence information is lacking for >90% of the HLA alleles. One of the goals of the 17th IHIWS workshop is to establish full-length sequences for as many HLA alleles as possible. In our component “Extension of HLA sequences by full-length HLA allele-specific hemizygous Sanger sequencing” we have used full-length hemizygous Sanger Sequence Based Typing to achieve this goal. We selected samples of which…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Streptococcus suis contains multiple phase-variable methyltransferases that show a discrete lineage distribution.

Streptococcus suis is a major pathogen of swine, responsible for a number of chronic and acute infections, and is also emerging as a major zoonotic pathogen, particularly in South-East Asia. Our study of a diverse population of S. suis shows that this organism contains both Type I and Type III phase-variable methyltransferases. In all previous examples, phase-variation of methyltransferases results in genome wide methylation differences, and results in differential regulation of multiple genes, a system known as the phasevarion (phase-variable regulon). We hypothesized that each variant in the Type I and Type III systems encoded a methyltransferase with a unique…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Unraveling microbial communities associated with methylmercury production in paddy soils.

Rice consumption is now recognized as an important pathway of human exposure to the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), particularly in countries where rice is a staple food. Although the discovery of a two-gene cluster hgcAB has linked Hg methylation to several phylogenetically diverse groups of anaerobic microorganisms converting inorganic mercury (Hg) to MeHg, the prevalence and diversity of Hg methylators in microbial communities of rice paddy soils remain unclear. We characterized the abundance and distribution of hgcAB genes using third-generation PacBio long-read sequencing and Illumina short-read metagenomic sequencing, in combination with quantitative PCR analyses in several mine-impacted paddy soils from southwest…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genotype to phenotype: Diet-by-mitochondrial DNA haplotype interactions drive metabolic flexibility and organismal fitness.

Diet may be modified seasonally or by biogeographic, demographic or cultural shifts. It can differentially influence mitochondrial bioenergetics, retrograde signalling to the nuclear genome, and anterograde signalling to mitochondria. All these interactions have the potential to alter the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes (mitotypes) in nature and may impact human health. In a model laboratory system, we fed four diets varying in Protein: Carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (1:2, 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16 P:C) to four homoplasmic Drosophila melanogaster mitotypes (nuclear genome standardised) and assayed their frequency in population cages. When fed a high protein 1:2 P:C diet, the frequency of flies harbouring…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Purge Haplotigs: allelic contig reassignment for third-gen diploid genome assemblies.

Recent developments in third-gen long read sequencing and diploid-aware assemblers have resulted in the rapid release of numerous reference-quality assemblies for diploid genomes. However, assembly of highly heterozygous genomes is still problematic when regional heterogeneity is so high that haplotype homology is not recognised during assembly. This results in regional duplication rather than consolidation into allelic variants and can cause issues with downstream analysis, for example variant discovery, or haplotype reconstruction using the diploid assembly with unpaired allelic contigs.A new pipeline-Purge Haplotigs-was developed specifically for third-gen sequencing-based assemblies to automate the reassignment of allelic contigs, and to assist in the…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Spread of the florfenicol resistance floR gene among clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in China.

Florfenicol is a derivative of chloramphenicol that is used only for the treatment of animal diseases. A key resistance gene for florfenicol, floR, can spread among bacteria of the same and different species or genera through horizontal gene transfer. To analyze the potential transmission of resistance genes between animal and human pathogens, we investigated floR in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patient samples. floR in human pathogens may originate from animal pathogens and would reflect the risk to human health of using antimicrobial agents in animals.PCR was used to identify floR-positive strains. The floR genes were cloned, and the minimum inhibitory…

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