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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Whole genome sequencing of a novel, dichloromethane-fermenting Peptococcaceae from an enrichment culture

Bacteria capable of dechlorinating the toxic environmental contaminant dichloromethane (DCM, CHt2Cl2) are of great interest for potential bioremediation applications. A novel, strictly anaerobic, DCM-fermenting bacterium, “DCMF”, was enriched from organochlorine-contaminated groundwater near Botany Bay, Australia. The enrichment culture was maintained in minimal, mineral salt medium amended with dichloromethane as the sole energy source. PacBio whole genome SMRTtextsuperscriptTM sequencing of DCMF allowed textitde novo, gap-free assembly despite the presence of cohabiting organisms in the culture. Illumina sequencing reads were utilised to correct minor indels. The single, circularised 6.44 Mb chromosome was annotated with the IMG pipeline and contains 5,773 predicted protein-coding…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genome-Wide Screening for Enteric Colonization Factors in Carbapenem-Resistant ST258 Klebsiella pneumoniae.

A diverse, antibiotic-naive microbiota prevents highly antibiotic-resistant microbes, including carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp), from achieving dense colonization of the intestinal lumen. Antibiotic-mediated destruction of the microbiota leads to expansion of CR-Kp in the gut, markedly increasing the risk of bacteremia in vulnerable patients. While preventing dense colonization represents a rational approach to reduce intra- and interpatient dissemination of CR-Kp, little is known about pathogen-associated factors that enable dense growth and persistence in the intestinal lumen. To identify genetic factors essential for dense colonization of the gut by CR-Kp, we constructed a highly saturated transposon mutant library with >150,000 unique mutations…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Genomic characterization of Kerstersia gyiorum SWMUKG01, an isolate from a patient with respiratory infection in China.

The Gram-negative bacterium Kerstersia gyiorum, a potential etiological agent of clinical infections, was isolated from several human patients presenting clinical symptoms. Its significance as a possible pathogen has been previously overlooked as no disease has thus far been definitively associated with this bacterium. To better understand how the organism contributes to the infectious disease, we determined the complete genomic sequence of K. gyiorum SWMUKG01, the first clinical isolate from southwest China.The genomic data obtained displayed a single circular chromosome of 3, 945, 801 base pairs in length, which contains 3, 441 protein-coding genes, 55 tRNA genes and 9 rRNA genes.…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Reconstruction of the genomes of drug-resistant pathogens for outbreak investigation through metagenomic sequencing

Culture-independent methods that target genome fragments have shown promise in identifying certain pathogens, but the holy grail of comprehensive pathogen genome detection from microbiologically complex samples for subsequent forensic analyses remains a challenge. In the context of an investigation of a nosocomial outbreak, we used shotgun metagenomic sequencing of a human fecal sample and a neural network algorithm based on tetranucleotide frequency profiling to reconstruct microbial genomes and tested the same approach using rectal swabs from a second patient. The approach rapidly and readily detected the genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae in the patient fecal specimen and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Streptococcus periodonticum sp. nov., Isolated from Human Subgingival Dental Plaque of Periodontitis Lesion.

A novel facultative anaerobic and Gram-stain-positive coccus, designated strain ChDC F135T, was isolated from human subgingival dental plaque of periodontitis lesion and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomic analysis. The 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence of strain ChDC F135T was closest to that of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T (98.2%), followed by Streptococcus intermedia SK54T (97.0%), Streptococcus constellatus NCTC11325T (96.0%), and Streptococcus anginosus NCTC 10713T (95.7%). In contrast, phylogenetic analysis based on the superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) and the RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) showed that the nucleotide sequence similarities of strain ChDC F135T were highly similar to the corresponding genes of…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Streptococcus gwangjuense sp. nov., Isolated from Human Pericoronitis.

A novel facultative anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative coccus, designated strain ChDC B345T, was isolated from human pericoronitis lesion and was characterized by polyphasic taxonomic analysis. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Streptococcus. The 16S rDNA sequence of strain ChDC B345T was most closely related to those of  Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T (99.5%) and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae ATCC BAA-960T (99.5%). Complete genome of strain ChDC B345T was 1,972,471 bp in length and the G?+?C content was 40.2 mol%. Average nucleotide identity values between strain ChDC B345T and S. pseudopneumoniae ATCC BAA-960T or S. mitis NCTC 12261T were…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Conventional culture methods with commercially available media unveil the presence of novel culturable bacteria.

Recent metagenomic analysis has revealed that our gut microbiota plays an important role in not only the maintenance of our health but also various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. However, most intestinal bacteria are considered ‘unculturable’ bacteria, and their functions remain unknown. Although culture-independent genomic approaches have enabled us to gain insight into their potential roles, culture-based approaches are still required to understand their characteristic features and phenotypes. To date, various culturing methods have been attempted to obtain these ‘unculturable’ bacteria, but most such methods require advanced techniques. Here, we have tried to isolate possible…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

FadR1, a pathway-specific activator of fidaxomicin biosynthesis in Actinoplanes deccanensis Yp-1.

Fidaxomicin, an 18-membered macrolide antibiotic, is highly active against Clostridium difficile, the most common cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Though the biosynthetic mechanism of fidaxomicin has been well studied, little is known about its regulatory mechanism. Here, we reported that FadR1, a LAL family transcriptional regulator in the fidaxomicin cluster of Actinoplanes deccanensis Yp-1, acts as an activator for fidaxomicin biosynthesis. The disruption of fadR1 abolished the ability to synthesize fidaxomicin, and production could be restored by reintegrating a single copy of fadR1. Overexpression of fadR1 resulted in an approximately 400 % improvement in fidaxomicin production. Electrophoretic mobility shift…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Novel thermostable enzymes from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius W-2 for high-efficient nitroalkane removal under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

In this study, a thermophilic facultative anaerobic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius W-2 was found to degrade nitroalkane under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bioinformatical analysis revealed three putative nitroalkane-oxidizing enzymes (Gt-NOEs) genes from the W-2 genome. The three identified proteins Gt2929, Gt1378, and Gt1208 displayed optimal activities at high temperatures (70, 70, and 80?°C, respectively). Among these, Gt2929 exhibited excellent degradation capability, pH stability, and metal ion tolerance for nitronates under aerobic condition. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, only Gt1378 still maintained high activity for 2-nitropropane and nitroethane, indicating that the W-2 strain utilized various pathways to degrade nitronates under aerobic and…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of the Wolbachia wAlbB Endosymbiont of Aedes albopictus.

Wolbachia, an alpha-proteobacterium closely related to Rickettsia, is a maternally transmitted, intracellular symbiont of arthropods and nematodes. Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are naturally infected with Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB. Cell line Aa23 established from Ae. albopictus embryos retains only wAlbB and is a key model to study host-endosymbiont interactions. We have assembled the complete circular genome of wAlbB from the Aa23 cell line using long-read PacBio sequencing at 500× median coverage. The assembled circular chromosome is 1.48 megabases in size, an increase of more than 300 kb over the published draft wAlbB genome. The annotation of the genome identified 1,205…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequences of a H2O2-resistant psychrophilic bacterium Colwellia sp. Arc7-D isolated from Arctic Ocean sediment

Colwellia sp. Arc7-D, a psychrophilic H2O2-resisitant bacterium, was isolated from Arctic Ocean sediment. Here we describe the complete genome of Colwellia sp. Arc7-D. The genome has one circular chromosome of 4,305,442?bp (37.67?mol%?G?+?C content), consisting of 3526 coding genes, 77 tRNA genes, as well as five rRNA operons as 16S–23S-5S rRNA and one rRNA operon as 16S-23S-5S-5S. According to KEGG analysis, strain Arc7-D encodes 23 genes related with antioxidant activity including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase. However, many additional genes affiliated with anti-oxidative stress were also identified, such as aconitase, thioredoxin and ascorbic acid.

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete genome sequence of Bradymonas sediminis FA350T, the first representative of the order Bradymonadales

Bradymonas sediminis FA350T (=DSM 28820T?=?CICC 10904T) is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from coastal sediments from the Xiaoshi Island, Weihai, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that that strain FA350T belonged to a novel bacterial order in the class Deltaproteobacteria. Then, based on polyphasic taxonomy analyses, a novel order Bradymonadales and a novel family Bradymonadaceae were proposed and validly published. Here, we reported the complete genome of this strain; the genome is 5,045,683?bp in size, has a GC content of 61.1% and contains 3992 predicted genes. Strain FA350T featured being able to prey…

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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Complete Genome Sequence of Lactic Acid Bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici Strain ATCC 8042, an Autolytic Anti-bacterial Peptidoglycan Hydrolase Producer

Pediococcus acidilactici is a probiotic bacterium that is industrially utilized in the food industry and antibiotics development. Here, we determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042. The genome was sequenced by the PacBio RSII to generate a single contig consisting of circular chromosome sequence. Illumina MiniSeq sequencing platform and Sanger sequencing method were additionally utilized to correct errors resulting from the long-read sequencing platform. The sequence consists of 2,009,598 bp with a G + C content of 42.1% and contains 1,865 protein-coding sequences. Based on the sequence information, we could confirm and predict the…

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