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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome sequence and comparative pathogenic determinants of multidrug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli O25b: H4, A clinical isolate from Saudi Arabia

Escherichia coli serotype O25b:H4 is involved in human urinary tract infections.In this study, we sequenced and analyzed E. coli O25b:H4 isolated from a patient sufferingfrom recurring UTI infections in an intensive care unit at Hera General Hospital inMakkah, Saudi Arabia. We aimed to determine the virulence genes for pathogenesis anddrug resistance of this isolate compared to other E. coli strains. We sequenced and analyzedthe E. coli O25b:H4 Saudi strain clinical isolate using next generation sequencing. Usingthe ERGO genome analysis platform, we performed annotations and identified virulenceand antibiotic resistance determinants of this clinical isolate. The E. coli O25b:H4 genomewas assembled into…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Colib’read on galaxy: a tools suite dedicated to biological information extraction from raw NGS reads

With next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, the life sciences face a deluge of raw data. Classical analysis processes for such data often begin with an assembly step, needing large amounts of computing resources, and potentially removing or modifying parts of the biological information contained in the data. Our approach proposes to focus directly on biological questions, by considering raw unassembled NGS data, through a suite of six command-line tools.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

STR-realigner: a realignment method for short tandem repeat regions.

In the estimation of repeat numbers in a short tandem repeat (STR) region from high-throughput sequencing data, two types of strategies are mainly taken: a strategy based on counting repeat patterns included in sequence reads spanning the region and a strategy based on estimating the difference between the actual insert size and the insert size inferred from paired-end reads. The quality of sequence alignment is crucial, especially in the former approaches although usual alignment methods have difficulty in STR regions due to insertions and deletions caused by the variations of repeat numbers.We proposed a new dynamic programming based realignment method…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First complete genome sequence of a subdivision 6 Acidobacterium strain.

Although ubiquitous and abundant in soils, acidobacteria have mostly escaped isolation and remain poorly investigated. Only a few cultured representatives and just eight genomes of subdivisions 1, 3, and 4 are available to date. Here, we determined the complete genome sequence of strain HEG_-6_39, the first genome of Acidobacterium subdivision 6. Copyright © 2016 Huang et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Improved assembly of noisy long reads by k-mer validation.

Genome assembly depends critically on read length. Two recent technologies, from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) and Oxford Nanopore, produce read lengths >20 kb, which yield de novo genome assemblies with vastly greater contiguity than those based on Sanger, Illumina, or other technologies. However, the very high error rates of these two new technologies (~15% per base) makes assembly imprecise at repeats longer than the read length and computationally expensive. Here we show that the contiguity and quality of the assembly of these noisy long reads can be significantly improved at a minimal cost, by leveraging on the low error rate and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A simple thermoplastic substrate containing hierarchical silica lamellae for high-molecular-weight DNA extraction.

An inexpensive, magnetic thermoplastic nanomaterial is developed utilizing a hierarchical layering of micro- and nanoscale silica lamellae to create a high-surface-area and low-shear substrate capable of capturing vast amounts of ultrahigh-molecular-weight DNA. Extraction is performed via a simple 45 min process and is capable of achieving binding capacities up to 1 000 000 times greater than silica microparticles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Information-optimal genome assembly via sparse read-overlap graphs.

In the context of third-generation long-read sequencing technologies, read-overlap-based approaches are expected to play a central role in the assembly step. A fundamental challenge in assembling from a read-overlap graph is that the true sequence corresponds to a Hamiltonian path on the graph, and, under most formulations, the assembly problem becomes NP-hard, restricting practical approaches to heuristics. In this work, we avoid this seemingly fundamental barrier by first setting the computational complexity issue aside, and seeking an algorithm that targets information limits In particular, we consider a basic feasibility question: when does the set of reads contain enough information to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

CoLoRMap: Correcting Long Reads by Mapping short reads.

Second generation sequencing technologies paved the way to an exceptional increase in the number of sequenced genomes, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. However, short reads are difficult to assemble and often lead to highly fragmented assemblies. The recent developments in long reads sequencing methods offer a promising way to address this issue. However, so far long reads are characterized by a high error rate, and assembling from long reads require a high depth of coverage. This motivates the development of hybrid approaches that leverage the high quality of short reads to correct errors in long reads.We introduce CoLoRMap, a hybrid method…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome-guided design of a defined mouse microbiota that confers colonization resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

Protection against enteric infections, also termed colonization resistance, results from mutualistic interactions of the host and its indigenous microbes. The gut microbiota of humans and mice is highly diverse and it is therefore challenging to assign specific properties to its individual members. Here, we have used a collection of murine bacterial strains and a modular design approach to create a minimal bacterial community that, once established in germ-free mice, provided colonization resistance against the human enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm). Initially, a community of 12 strains, termed Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota (Oligo-MM(12)), representing members of the major bacterial phyla in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Identification of a virulence determinant that is conserved in the Jawetz and Heyl biotypes of [Pasteurella] pneumotropica.

[Pasteurella] pneumotropica is a ubiquitous bacterium frequently isolated from laboratory rodents. Although this bacterium causes various diseases in immunosuppressed animals, little is known about major virulence factors and their roles in pathogenicity. To identify virulence factors, we sequenced the genome of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl strain ATCC 12555, and compared the resulting non-contiguous draft genome sequence with the genome of biotype Jawetz strain ATCC 35149. Among a large number of genes encoding virulence-associated factors in both strains, four genes encoding for YadA-like proteins, which are known virulence factors that function in host cell adherence and invasion in many pathogens. In…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomics-inspired discovery of three antibacterial active metabolites, aurantinins B, C, and D from compost-associated Bacillus subtilis fmb60.

Fmb60 is a wild-type Bacillus subtilis isolated from compost with significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Two novel PKS clusters were recognized in the genome sequence of fmb60, and then three polyene antibiotics, aurantinins B, C, and D, 1-3, were obtained by bioactivity-guided isolation from the fermentation of fmb60. The structures of aurantinins B-D were elucidated by LC-HRMS and NMR data analysis. Aurantinins C and D were identified as new antimicrobial compounds. The three aurantinins showed significant activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium sporogenes. However, aurantinins B-D did not exhibit any cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 µg/mL) against LO2 and Caco2 cell…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic sequencing-based mutational enrichment analysis identifies motility genes in a genetically intractable gut microbe.

A major roadblock to understanding how microbes in the gastrointestinal tract colonize and influence the physiology of their hosts is our inability to genetically manipulate new bacterial species and experimentally assess the function of their genes. We describe the application of population-based genomic sequencing after chemical mutagenesis to map bacterial genes responsible for motility in Exiguobacterium acetylicum, a representative intestinal Firmicutes bacterium that is intractable to molecular genetic manipulation. We derived strong associations between mutations in 57 E. acetylicum genes and impaired motility. Surprisingly, less than half of these genes were annotated as motility-related based on sequence homologies. We confirmed…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

DNA extraction protocols for whole-genome sequencing in marine organisms.

The marine environment harbors a large proportion of the total biodiversity on this planet, including the majority of the earths’ different phyla and classes. Studying the genomes of marine organisms can bring interesting insights into genome evolution. Today, almost all marine organismal groups are understudied with respect to their genomes. One potential reason is that extraction of high-quality DNA in sufficient amounts is challenging for many marine species. This is due to high polysaccharide content, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites that will inhibit downstream DNA library preparations. Consequently, protocols developed for vertebrates and plants do not always perform well for…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Serinibacter

The genus Serinibacter belongs, based on the phylogenetic analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene, to the Beutenbergiaceae together with the genera Beutenbergia, Salana, and Miniimonas. The two species of the genus Serinibacter shared 99.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity but low DNA DNA relatedness. Cells are irregular rods, Gram-stain positive, not acid-fast. Endospores are not formed. Nonmotile. Aerobic to anaerobic. Oxidase-negative, catalase-positive. The peptidoglycan type is A4a with an l-Ser residue at position 1 of the peptide subunit. The acyl type is acetyl. The major cell-wall sugar is galactose. The predominant menaquinone is MK-8(H4). The major polar lipids…

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