70% (40/56) of the strains. In relation to antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, tetracycline resistance genes (tet) and anti-defensins genes (mprF) were consistently detected in silico (tet: 75%; mprF: 100%). However, pre-antibiotic era strain genomes did not encode for tet, thus implying antimicrobial selective pressures in C. perfringens evolutionary history over the past 80 years. This study provides new genomic understanding of this genetically divergent multi-host bacterium, and further expands our knowledge on this medically and veterinary important pathogen."/>
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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Probing genomic aspects of the multi-host pathogen Clostridium perfringens reveals significant pangenome diversity, and a diverse array of virulence factors.

Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of animal and human infections, however information about the genetic makeup of this pathogenic bacterium is currently limited. In this study, we sought to understand and characterise the genomic variation, pangenomic diversity, and key virulence traits of 56 C. perfringens strains which included 51 public, and 5 newly sequenced and annotated genomes using Whole Genome Sequencing. Our investigation revealed that C. perfringens has an “open” pangenome comprising 11667 genes and 12.6% of core genes, identified as the most divergent single-species Gram-positive bacterial pangenome currently reported. Our computational analyses also defined C. perfringens phylogeny (16S…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The emergence and intercontinental spread of a multidrug-resistant clade of typhoid agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

Multidrug-resistant typhoid is a global health problem. Previous studies conducted in countries of Asia and Africa have identified a highly clonal, multidrug-resistant lineage of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi), known as H58. However, little is known about the emergence and geographical spread of the H58 clade. In this study, we have used whole-genome sequencing of a global collection of S Typhi to investigate this highly successful lineage.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Stability of the encoding plasmids and surface expression of CS6 differs in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) encoding Different heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins (STh and STp).

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), one of the most common reasons of diarrhea among infants and children in developing countries, causes disease by expression of either or both of the enterotoxins heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST; divided into human-type [STh] and porcine-type [STp] variants), and colonization factors (CFs) among which CS6 is one of the most prevalent ETEC CFs. In this study we show that ETEC isolates expressing CS6+STh have higher copy numbers of the cssABCD operon encoding CS6 than those expressing CS6+STp. Long term cultivation of up to ten over-night passages of ETEC isolates harboring CS6+STh (n = 10) or…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Haemonchus contortus: genome structure, organization and comparative genomics

One of the first genome sequencing projects for a parasitic nematode was that for Haemonchus contortus. The open access data from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute provided a valuable early resource for the research community, particularly for the identification of specific genes and genetic markers. Later, a second sequencing project was initiated by the University of Melbourne, and the two draft genome sequences for H. contortus were published back-to-back in 2013. There is a pressing need for long-range genomic information for genetic mapping, population genetics and functional genomic studies, so we are continuing to improve the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute assembly…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Emergence of host-adapted Salmonella Enteritidis through rapid evolution in an immunocompromised host.

Host adaptation is a key factor contributing to the emergence of new bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens. Many pathogens are considered promiscuous because they cause disease across a range of host species, while others are host-adapted, infecting particular hosts(1). Host adaptation can potentially progress to host restriction where the pathogen is strictly limited to a single host species and is frequently associated with more severe symptoms. Host-adapted and host-restricted bacterial clades evolve from within a broader host-promiscuous species and sometimes target different niches within their specialist hosts, such as adapting from a mucosal to a systemic lifestyle. Genome degradation, marked…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evaluation of an optimal epidemiologic typing scheme for Legionella pneumophila with whole genome sequence data using validation guidelines.

Sequence-based typing (SBT), analogous to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), is the current gold-standard typing method for investigation of legionellosis outbreaks caused by Legionella pneumophila However, as common sequence types (STs) cause many infections, some investigations remain unresolved. Here, various whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based methods were evaluated according to published guidelines, including: i) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based; ii) extended multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) using different numbers of genes; iii) gene presence/absence, and iv) kmer-based. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates (n=106) from the standard “typing panel”, previously used by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology Study Group on Legionella Infections (ESGLI) were…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Distinct Salmonella enteritidis lineages associated with enterocolitis in high-income settings and invasive disease in low-income settings.

An epidemiological paradox surrounds Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In high-income settings, it has been responsible for an epidemic of poultry-associated, self-limiting enterocolitis, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa it is a major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, associated with high case fatality. By whole-genome sequence analysis of 675 isolates of S. Enteritidis from 45 countries, we show the existence of a global epidemic clade and two new clades of S. Enteritidis that are geographically restricted to distinct regions of Africa. The African isolates display genomic degradation, a novel prophage repertoire, and an expanded multidrug resistance plasmid. S. Enteritidis is a further…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Expansion of lysine-rich repeats in Plasmodium proteins generates novel localisation sequences that target the periphery of the host erythrocyte.

Repetitive low-complexity sequences, mostly assumed to have no function, are common in proteins that are exported by the malaria parasite into its host erythrocyte. We identify a group of exported proteins containing short lysine-rich tandemly repeated sequences that are sufficient to localise to the erythrocyte periphery where key virulence-related modifications to the plasma membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton are known to occur. Efficiency of targeting is dependent on repeat number, indicating that novel targeting modules could evolve by expansion of short lysine-rich sequences. Indeed, expression GARP fragments from different species shows that two novel targeting sequences have arisen via the…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete whole-genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Java NCTC5706.

Salmonellae are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Java strain NCTC5706. This strain is of historical significance, having been isolated in the pre-antibiotic era and was deposited into the National Collection of Type Cultures in 1939.© Crown copyright 2016.

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