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November 22, 2017

Complete genome sequences of two strains of the meat spoilage bacterium Brochothrix thermosphacta isolated from ground chicken.

Brochothrix thermosphacta is an important meat spoilage bacterium. Here we report the genome sequences of two strains of B. thermosphacta isolated from ground chicken. The genome sequences were determined using long-read PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology and are the first complete genome sequences reported for B. thermosphacta.

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July 24, 2017

The genome of the cotton bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum strain MSCT1.

Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum is a major pathogen of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.. In this study we report the complete genome of the X. citri pv. malvacearum strain MSCT1 assembled from long read DNA sequencing technology. The MSCT1 genome is the first X. citri pv. malvacearum genome with complete coding regions for X. citri pv. malvacearum transcriptional activator-like effectors. In addition functional and structural annotations are presented in this study that will provide a foundation for future pathogenesis studies with MSCT1.

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July 18, 2017

Novel pelagic iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria from the Chesapeake Bay oxic-anoxic transition zone.

Chemolithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) could theoretically inhabit any environment where Fe(II) and O2 (or nitrate) coexist. Until recently, marine Fe-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria had primarily been observed in benthic and subsurface settings, but not redox-stratified water columns. This may be due to the challenges that a pelagic lifestyle would pose for Zetaproteobacteria, given low Fe(II) concentrations in modern marine waters and the possibility that Fe oxyhydroxide biominerals could cause cells to sink. However, we recently cultivated Zetaproteobacteria from the Chesapeake Bay oxic-anoxic transition zone, suggesting that they can survive and contribute to biogeochemical cycling in a stratified estuary. Here we describe the…

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July 3, 2017

PHASIS: A computational suite for de novo discovery and characterization of phased, siRNA-generating loci and their miRNA triggers

Phased, secondary siRNAs (phasiRNAs) are found widely in plants, from protein-coding transcripts and long, non-coding RNAs; animal piRNAs are also phased. Integrated methods characterizing textquotedblleftPHAStextquotedblright loci are unavailable, and existing methods are quite limited and inefficient in handling large volumes of sequencing data. The PHASIS suite described here provides complete tools for the computational characterization of PHAS loci, with an emphasis on plants, in which these loci are numerous. Benchmarked comparisons demonstrate that PHASIS is sensitive, highly scalable and fast. Importantly, PHASIS eliminates the requirement of a sequenced genome and PARE/degradome data for discovery of phasiRNAs and their miRNA triggers.

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June 1, 2017

Antibiotic discovery throughout the Small World Initiative: A molecular strategy to identify biosynthetic gene clusters involved in antagonistic activity.

The emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to all known antibiotics is a global health crisis. Adding to this problem is that major pharmaceutical companies have shifted away from antibiotic discovery due to low profitability. As a result, the pipeline of new antibiotics is essentially dry and many bacteria now resist the effects of most commonly used drugs. To address this global health concern, citizen science through the Small World Initiative (SWI) was formed in 2012. As part of SWI, students isolate bacteria from their local environments, characterize the strains, and assay for antibiotic production. During the 2015 fall semester at…

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April 27, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Bordetella pertussis Pelita III, the production strain for an Indonesian whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

PT Bio Farma, the sole World Health Organization-approved Indonesian vaccine producer, manufactures a whole-cell whooping cough vaccine (wP) that, as part of a pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/hepatitis B/Haemophilus influenzae b (DTP/HB/Hib) vaccine, is used in Indonesia and many other countries. We report here the whole-genome sequence for Bordetella pertussis Pelita III, PT Bio Farma's wP production strain. Copyright © 2017 Efendi et al.

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April 20, 2017

Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma citri strain R8-A2T, causal agent of stubborn disease in Citrus species.

Spiroplasma citri causes stubborn disease in Citrus spp. and diseases in other plants. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,599,709-bp circular chromosome and two plasmids of S. citri strain R8-A2(T) This information will facilitate analyses to understand spiroplasmal pathogenicity and evolutionary adaptations to lifestyles in plants and arthropod hosts. Copyright © 2017 Davis et al.

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March 1, 2017

Whole genome sequencing and analysis of Campylobacter coli YH502 from retail chicken reveals a plasmid-borne type VI secretion system.

Campylobacter is a major cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Campylobacter infections, commonly caused by ingestion of undercooked poultry and meat products, can lead to gastroenteritis and chronic reactive arthritis in humans. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a powerful technology that provides comprehensive genetic information about bacteria and is increasingly being applied to study foodborne pathogens: e.g., evolution, epidemiology/outbreak investigation, and detection. Herein we report the complete genome sequence of Campylobacter coli strain YH502 isolated from retail chicken in the United States. WGS, de novo assembly, and annotation of the genome revealed a chromosome of 1,718,974 bp and a mega-plasmid (pCOS502) of…

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January 12, 2017

Whole-genome sequence of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strain PA20.

Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strain PA20 is a Pennsylvania Department of Health clinical isolate. It has been used to study biofilm formation in O157:H7 clinical isolates, where the high incidence of prophage insertions in the mlrA transcription factor disrupts traditional csgD biofilm regulation. Here, we report the complete PA20 genome sequence. Copyright © 2017 Uhlich et al.

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December 20, 2016

Silicon content of individual cells of Synechococcus from the North Atlantic Ocean

The widely distributed marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus is thought to exert an influence on the marine silicon (Si) cycle through its high cellular Si relative to organic content. There are few measurements of Si in natural populations of Synechococcus, however, and the degree to which Synechococcus from various oligotrophic field sites and depths accumulate the element is unknown. We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence to measure Si quotas in individual Synechococcus cells collected during three cruises in the western North Atlantic Ocean in the summer and fall, focusing on cells from the surface mixed layer (SML;

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April 14, 2016

D1FHS, the type strain of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosococcus wardiae spec. nov.: enrichment, isolation, phylogenetic, and growth physiological characterization.

An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, strain D1FHS, was enriched into pure culture from a sediment sample retrieved in Jiaozhou Bay, a hyper-eutrophic semi-closed water body hosting the metropolitan area of Qingdao, China. Based on initial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain D1FHS was classified in the genus Nitrosococcus, family Chromatiaceae, order Chromatiales, class Gammaproteobacteria; the 16S rRNA gene sequence with highest level of identity to that of D1FHS was obtained from Nitrosococcus halophilus Nc4(T). The average nucleotide identity between the genomes of strain D1FHS and N. halophilus strain Nc4 is 89.5%. Known species in the genus Nitrosococcus are obligate aerobic chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing…

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March 18, 2016

Horizontal gene acquisitions, mobile element proliferation, and genome decay in the host-restricted plant pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila.

Modern industrial agriculture depends on high-density cultivation of genetically similar crop plants, creating favorable conditions for the emergence of novel pathogens with increased fitness in managed compared with ecologically intact settings. Here, we present the genome sequence of six strains of the cucurbit bacterial wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila (Enterobacteriaceae) isolated from infected squash plants in New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Michigan. These genomes exhibit a high proportion of recent horizontal gene acquisitions, invasion and remarkable amplification of mobile genetic elements, and pseudogenization of approximately 20% of the coding sequences. These genome attributes indicate that E. tracheiphila recently emerged as a…

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September 28, 2015

Complete genome sequence, metabolic model construction and phenotypic characterization of Geobacillus LC300, an extremely thermophilic, fast growing, xylose-utilizing bacterium.

We have isolated a new extremely thermophilic fast-growing Geobacillus strain that can efficiently utilize xylose, glucose, mannose and galactose for cell growth. When grown aerobically at 72°C, Geobacillus LC300 has a growth rate of 2.15h(-1) on glucose and 1.52h(-1) on xylose (doubling time less than 30min). The corresponding specific glucose and xylose utilization rates are 5.55g/g/h and 5.24g/g/h, respectively. As such, Geobacillus LC300 grows 3-times faster than E. coli on glucose and xylose, and has a specific xylose utilization rate that is 3-times higher than the best metabolically engineered organism to date. To gain more insight into the metabolism of…

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