July 19, 2019  |  

Genetic stabilization of the drug-resistant PMEN1 Pneumococcus lineage by its distinctive DpnIII restriction-modification system.

The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) exhibits a high degree of genomic diversity and plasticity. Isolates with high genomic similarity are grouped into lineages that undergo homologous recombination at variable rates. PMEN1 is a pandemic, multidrug-resistant lineage. Heterologous gene exchange between PMEN1 and non-PMEN1 isolates is directional, with extensive gene transfer from PMEN1 strains and only modest transfer into PMEN1 strains. Restriction-modification (R-M) systems can restrict horizontal gene transfer, yet most pneumococcal strains code for either the DpnI or DpnII R-M system and neither limits homologous recombination. Our comparative genomic analysis revealed that PMEN1 isolates code for DpnIII, a third R-M system syntenic to the other Dpn systems. Characterization of DpnIII demonstrated that the endonuclease cleaves unmethylated double-stranded DNA at the tetramer sequence 5′ GATC 3′, and the cognate methylase is a C5 cytosine-specific DNA methylase. We show that DpnIII decreases the frequency of recombination under in vitro conditions, such that the number of transformants is lower for strains transformed with unmethylated DNA than in those transformed with cognately methylated DNA. Furthermore, we have identified two PMEN1 isolates where the DpnIII endonuclease is disrupted, and phylogenetic work by Croucher and colleagues suggests that these strains have accumulated genomic differences at a higher rate than other PMEN1 strains. We propose that the R-M locus is a major determinant of genetic acquisition; the resident R-M system governs the extent of genome plasticity.Pneumococcus is one of the most important community-acquired bacterial pathogens. Pneumococcal strains can develop resistance to antibiotics and to serotype vaccines by acquiring genes from other strains or species. Thus, genomic plasticity is associated with strain adaptability and pneumococcal success. PMEN1 is a widespread and multidrug-resistant highly pathogenic pneumococcal lineage, which has evolved over the past century and displays a relatively stable genome. In this study, we characterize DpnIII, a restriction-modification (R-M) system that limits recombination. DpnIII is encountered in the PMEN1 lineage, where it replaces other R-M systems that do not decrease plasticity. Our hypothesis is that this genomic region, where different pneumococcal lineages code for variable R-M systems, plays a role in the fine-tuning of the extent of genomic plasticity. It is possible that well-adapted lineages such as PMEN1 have a mechanism to increase genomic stability, rather than foster genomic plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Eutsey et al.


July 19, 2019  |  

Pangenome analysis of Bifidobacterium longum and site-directed mutagenesis through by-pass of restriction-modification systems.

Bifidobacterial genome analysis has provided insights as to how these gut commensals adapt to and persist in the human GIT, while also revealing genetic diversity among members of a given bifidobacterial (sub)species. Bifidobacteria are notoriously recalcitrant to genetic modification, which prevents exploration of their genomic functions, including those that convey (human) health benefits.PacBio SMRT sequencing was used to determine the whole genome seqeunces of two B. longum subsp. longum strains. The B. longum pan-genome was computed using PGAP v1.2 and the core B. longum phylogenetic tree was constructed using a maximum-likelihood based approach in PhyML v3.0. M.blmNCII was cloned in E. coli and an internal fragment if arfBarfB was cloned into pORI19 for insertion mutagenesis.In this study we present the complete genome sequences of two Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum strains. Comparative analysis with thirty one publicly available B. longum genomes allowed the definition of the B. longum core and dispensable genomes. This analysis also highlighted differences in particular metabolic abilities between members of the B. longum subspecies infantis, longum and suis. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the B. longum core genome indicated the existence of a novel subspecies. Methylome data, coupled to the analysis of restriction-modification systems, allowed us to substantially increase the genetic accessibility of B. longum subsp. longum NCIMB 8809 to a level that was shown to permit site-directed mutagenesis.Comparative genomic analysis of thirty three B. longum representatives revealed a closed pan-genome for this bifidobacterial species. Phylogenetic analysis of the B. longum core genome also provides evidence for a novel fifth B. longum subspecies. Finally, we improved genetic accessibility for the strain B. longum subsp. longum NCIMB 8809, which allowed the generation of a mutant of this strain.


July 19, 2019  |  

Genome sequencing of strain Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 with ginseng biotransformation ability.

Biotransformation for increasing the pharmaceutical effect of ginsenosides is getting more and more attractions. Strain Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 isolated from ginseng soil samples was identified to produce enzymes contributing to its excellent biotransformation activity against ginsenosides, the main active components of ginseng. Based on phylogenetic tree and homology analysis, the strain can be designated as Cellulosimicrobium sp. Genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina Miseq to explore the functional genes involved in ginsenoside transformation. The draft genome of Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 encoded 3450 open reading frames, 51 tRNA, and 9 rRNA. All ORFs were annotated using NCBI BLAST with non-redundant proteins, Gene Ontology, Cluster of Orthologous Gene, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. A total of 11 genes were selected based on the functional annotation analysis. These genes are relevant to ginsenoside biotransformation, including 6 for beta-glucosidase, 1 for alpha-N-arabinofuranosidase, 1 for alpha-1,6-glucosidase, 1 for endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, 1 for alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, and 1 for beta-galactosidase. These glycosidases were predicted to catalyze the hydrolysis of sugar moieties attached to the aglycon of ginsenosides and led to the transformation of PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides.


July 7, 2019  |  

The genus Brachypodium as a model for perenniality and polyploidy

The genus Brachypodium contains annual and perennial species with both diploid and polyploid genomes. Like the annual species B. distachyon, some of the perennial and polyploid species have traits compatible with use as a model system (e.g. small genomes, rapid generation time, self-fertile and easy to grow). Thus, there is an opportunity to leverage the resources and knowledge developed for B. distachyon to use other Brachypodium species as models for perenniality and the regulation and evolution of polyploid genomes. There are two factors driving an increased interest in perenniality. First, several perennial grasses are being developed as biomass crops for the sustainable production of biofuel and it would be useful to have a perennial model system to rapidly test biotechnological crop improvement strategies for undesirable impacts on perenniality and winter hardiness. In addition, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying perenniality could be used to design strategies for improving energy crops, for example, by changing resource allocation during growth or by altering the onset of dormancy. The second factor driving increased interest in perenniality is the potential environmental benefits of developing perennial grain crops. B. sylvaticum is a perennial with attributes suitable for use as a perennial model system. A high efficiency transformation system has been developed and a genome sequencing project is underway. Since many important crops, including emerging biomass crops, are polyploid, there is a pressing need to understand the rules governing the evolution and regulation of polyploid genomes. Unfortunately, it is difficult to study polyploid crop genomes because of their size and the difficulty of manipulating those plants in the laboratory. By contrast, B. hybridum has a small polyploid genome and is easy to work with in the laboratory. In addition, analysis of the B. hybridum genome, will be greatly aided by the genome sequences of the two extant diploid species (B. distachyon and B. stacei) that apparently gave rise to B. hybridum. Availability of high quality reference genomes for these three species will be a powerful resource for the study of polyploidy.


July 7, 2019  |  

Genome sequence of Ensifer adhaerens OV14 provides insights into its ability as a novel vector for the genetic transformation of plant genomes.

Recently it has been shown that Ensifer adhaerens can be used as a plant transformation technology, transferring genes into several plant genomes when equipped with a Ti plasmid. For this study, we have sequenced the genome of Ensifer adhaerens OV14 (OV14) and compared it with those of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (C58) and Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 (1021); the latter of which has also demonstrated a capacity to genetically transform crop genomes, albeit at significantly reduced frequencies.The 7.7 Mb OV14 genome comprises two chromosomes and two plasmids. All protein coding regions in the OV14 genome were functionally grouped based on an eggNOG database. No genes homologous to the A. tumefaciens Ti plasmid vir genes appeared to be present in the OV14 genome. Unexpectedly, OV14 and 1021 were found to possess homologs to chromosomal based genes cited as essential to A. tumefaciens T-DNA transfer. Of significance, genes that are non-essential but exert a positive influence on virulence and the ability to genetically transform host genomes were identified in OV14 but were absent from the 1021 genome.This study reveals the presence of homologs to chromosomally based Agrobacterium genes that support T-DNA transfer within the genome of OV14 and other alphaproteobacteria. The sequencing and analysis of the OV14 genome increases our understanding of T-DNA transfer by non-Agrobacterium species and creates a platform for the continued improvement of Ensifer-mediated transformation (EMT).


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas sp. KCTC 12332, a biotechnological potential bacterium.

Hydroxy fatty acids are used in various industries due to their availability, and in particular, Stenotrophomonas sp. has been regarded as a potential candidate for biotechnological applications, including biotransformation that hydrate unsaturated fatty acids into their derivatives. Here we complete the genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas sp. KCTC 12332 which has a size of 4,541,594bp (G+C content of 63.83%) with 3790 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), 67 tRNA and 3 rRNA operons. The genome contains gene encoding oleate hydratase that can convert oleic acid into 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of deoxynivalenol-degrading bacterium Devosia sp. strain A16.

The strain A16, capable of degrading deoxynivalenol was isolated from a wheat field and identified preliminarily as Devosia sp. Here, we present the genome sequence of the Devosia sp. A16, which has a size of 5,032,994bp, with 4913 coding sequences (CDSs). The annotated full genome sequence of the Devosia sp. A16 strain might shed light on the function of its degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Dam and Dcm methylations prevent gene transfer into Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598: development of methods for electrotransformation, conjugation, and sonoporation.

Butanol is currently one of the most discussed biofuels. Its use provides many benefits in comparison to bio-ethanol, but the price of its fermentative production is still high. Genetic improvements could help solve many problems associated with butanol production during ABE fermentation, such as its toxicity, low concentration achievable in the cultivation medium, the need for a relatively expensive substrate, and many more. Clostridium pasteurianum NRRL B-598 is non-type strain producing butanol, acetone, and a negligible amount of ethanol. Its main benefits are high oxygen tolerance, utilization of a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, and the availability of its whole genome sequence. However, there is no established method for the transfer of foreign DNA into this strain; this is the next step necessary for progress in its use for butanol production.We have described functional protocols for conjugation and transformation of the bio-butanol producer C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598 by foreign plasmid DNA. We show that the use of unmethylated plasmid DNA is necessary for efficient transformation or successful conjugation. Genes encoding DNA methylation and those for restriction-modification systems and antibiotic resistance were searched for in the whole genome sequence and their homologies with other clostridial bacteria were determined. Furthermore, activity of described novel type I restriction system was proved experimentally. The described electrotransformation protocol achieved an efficiency 1.2 × 10(2) cfu/µg DNA after step-by-step optimization and an efficiency of 1.6 × 10(2) cfu/µg DNA was achieved by the sonoporation technique using a standard laboratory ultrasound bath. The highest transformation efficiency was achieved using a combination of these approaches; sono/electroporation led to an increase in transformation efficiency, to 5.3 × 10(2) cfu/µg DNA.Both Dam and Dcm methylations are detrimental for transformation of C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598. Methods for conjugation, electroporation, sonoporation, and a combined method for sono/electroporation were established for this strain. The methods described could be used for genetic improvement of this strain, which is suitable for bio-butanol production.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of MIDG2331, a genetically tractable serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

We report here the complete annotated genome sequence of a clinical serovar 8 isolate Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae MIDG2331. Unlike the serovar 8 reference strain 405, MIDG2331 is amenable to genetic manipulation via natural transformation as well as conjugation, making it ideal for studies of gene function. Copyright © 2016 Bossé et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Metabolomics-guided analysis of isocoumarin production by Streptomyces species MBT76 and biotransformation of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

Actinomycetes produce the majority of the antibiotics currently in clinical use. The efficiency of antibiotic production is affected by multiple factors such as nutrients, pH, temperature and growth phase. Finding the optimal harvesting time is crucial for successful isolation of the desired bioactive metabolites from actinomycetes, but for this conventional chemical analysis has limitations due to the metabolic complexity. This study explores the utility of NMR-based metabolomics for (1) optimizing fermentation time for the production of known and/or unknown bioactive compounds produced by actinomycetes; (2) elucidating the biosynthetic pathway for microbial natural products; and (3) facilitating the biotransformation of nature-abundant chemicals.


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