July 7, 2019  |  

Genomic comparison between Staphylococcus aureus GN strains clinically isolated from a familial infection case: IS1272 transposition through a novel inverted repeat-replacing mechanism.

A bacterial insertion sequence (IS) is a mobile DNA sequence carrying only the transposase gene (tnp) that acts as a mutator to disrupt genes, alter gene expressions, and cause genomic rearrangements. “Canonical” ISs have historically been characterized by their terminal inverted repeats (IRs), which may form a stem-loop structure, and duplications of a short (non-IR) target sequence at both ends, called target site duplications (TSDs). The IS distributions and virulence potentials of Staphylococcus aureus genomes in familial infection cases are unclear. Here, we determined the complete circular genome sequences of familial strains from a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive ST50/agr4 S. aureus (GN) infection of a 4-year old boy with skin abscesses. The genomes of the patient strain (GN1) and parent strain (GN3) were rich for “canonical” IS1272 with terminal IRs, both having 13 commonly-existing copies (ce-IS1272). Moreover, GN1 had a newly-inserted IS1272 (ni-IS1272) on the PVL-converting prophage, while GN3 had two copies of ni-IS1272 within the DNA helicase gene and near rot. The GN3 genome also had a small deletion. The targets of ni-IS1272 transposition were IR structures, in contrast with previous “canonical” ISs. There were no TSDs. Based on a database search, the targets for ce-IS1272 were IRs or “non-IRs”. IS1272 included a larger structure with tandem duplications of the left (IRL) side sequence; tnp included minor cases of a long fusion form and truncated form. One ce-IS1272 was associated with the segments responsible for immune evasion and drug resistance. Regarding virulence, GN1 expressed cytolytic peptides (phenol-soluble modulin a and d-hemolysin) and PVL more strongly than some other familial strains. These results suggest that IS1272 transposes through an IR-replacing mechanism, with an irreversible process unlike that of “canonical” transpositions, resulting in genomic variations, and that, among the familial strains, the patient strain has strong virulence potential based on community-associated virulence factors.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus sciuri strain SNUDS-18 isolated from a farmed duck in South Korea.

This study aimed to determine the complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus sciuri strain SNUDS-18 isolated from a farmed duck in South Korea.Genomic DNA was sequenced using a PacBio RS II system. The obtained genome was annotated and antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were identified.The sequenced genome possessed a mecA homologue (mecA1) that was almost identical to that of other oxacillin-susceptible S. sciuri strains, whereas the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) was not detected. Moreover, various antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to ß-lactams, aminoglycosides, phenicols, tetracycline and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) antimicrobials were identified.The SNUDS-18 genome and its associated genomic data will provide important insights into the biodiversity of the S. sciuri group as well as valuable information for the control of this potential pathogen. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Wide geographical dissemination of the multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A clone in neonatal intensive-care units.

Nosocomial late-onset sepsis represents a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates. The Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has been previously described as an emerging cause of nosocomial bacteraemia in French neonatal intensive-care units (NICUs). In this study, we aimed to explore the possible unrecognized dissemination of this clone on a larger geographical scale. One hundred methicillin-resistant S. capitis strains isolated from neonates (n = 86) and adult patients (n = 14) between 2000 and 2013 in four different countries (France, Belgium, the UK, and Australia) were analysed with SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and dru typing. The vast majority of NICU strains showed the NRCS-A pulsotype and the dt11c type (96%). We then randomly selected 14 isolates (from neonates, n = 12, three per country; from adult patients, n = 2), considered to be a subset of representative isolates, and performed further molecular typing (SacII PFGE, SCCmec typing, and multilocus sequence typing-like analysis), confirming the clonality of the S. capitis strains isolated from neonates, despite their distant geographical origin. Whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis of five NICU isolates (from the different countries) attested to high genetic relatedness within the NRCS-A clone. Finally, all of the NRCS-A strains showed multidrug resistance (e.g. methicillin and aminoglycoside resistance, and decreased vancomycin susceptibility), with potential therapeutic implications for infected neonates. In conclusion, this study represents the first report of clonal dissemination of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus clone on a large geographical scale. Questions remain regarding the origin and means of international spread, and the reasons for this clone’s apparent predilection for neonates. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of two methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates representing a population subset highly prevalent in human colonization.

Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequences of two methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 08-02119 and 08-02300. Belonging to sequence type 582 (ST582) and ST7, both isolates are representatives of clonal lineages often associated with asymptomatic colonization of humans. Copyright © 2016 Weber et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Divergent isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways in Staphylococcus species constitute a drug target for treating infections in companion animals.

Staphylococcus species are a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections in humans and animals, and the antibiotics used to treat these infections are often the same. Methicillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections are becoming more common in human and veterinary medicine. From a “One Health” perspective, this overlap in antibiotic use and resistance raises concerns over the potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis revealed that Staphylococcus species use divergent pathways to synthesize isoprenoids. Species frequently associated with skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals, including S. schleiferi and S. pseudintermedius, use the nonmevalonate pathway. In contrast, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. lugdunensis use the mevalonate pathway. The antibiotic fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of the nonmevalonate pathway, was effective in killing canine clinical staphylococcal isolates but had no effect on the growth or survival of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. These data identify an essential metabolic pathway in Staphylococcus that differs among members of this genus and suggest that drugs such as fosmidomycin, which targets enzymes in the nonmevalonate pathway, may be an effective treatment for certain staphylococcal infections. IMPORTANCE Drug-resistant Staphylococcus species are a major concern in human and veterinary medicine. There is a need for new antibiotics that exhibit a selective effect in treating infections in companion and livestock animals and that would not be used to treat human bacterial infections. We have identified fosmidomycin as an antibiotic that selectively targets certain Staphylococcus species that are often encountered in skin infections in cats and dogs. These findings expand our understanding of Staphylococcus evolution and may have direct implications for treating staphylococcal infections in veterinary medicine.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus carnosus LTH 3730.

Specific strains of the apathogenic coagulase-negative species Staphylococcus carnosus are frequently used as meat starter cultures, as they contribute to color formation and the production of aroma compounds. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. carnosus LTH 3730, a strain isolated from a fermented fish product. Copyright © 2016 Müller et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Emergence of ileS2-carrying, multidrug-resistant plasmids in Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

Of 137 Staphylococcus lugdunensis isolates collected from two nephrology centers in Hong Kong, 10 (7.3%) and 3 (2.2%) isolates had high-level and low-level mupirocin resistance, respectively. Isolates with high-level resistance contained the plasmid-mediated ileS2 gene, while isolates with low-level resistance contained the mutation V588F within the chromosomal ileS gene. All but one of the ileS2-positive isolates belong to the predominating clone HKU1. Plasmids carrying the ileS2 gene were mosaic and also cocarry multiple other resistance determinants. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


July 7, 2019  |  

Transfer of the methicillin resistance genomic island among staphylococci by conjugation.

Methicillin resistance creates a major obstacle for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The resistance gene, mecA, is carried on a large (20 kb to?>?60 kb) genomic island, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), that excises from and inserts site-specifically into the staphylococcal chromosome. However, although SCCmec has been designated a mobile genetic element, a mechanism for its transfer has not been defined. Here we demonstrate the capture and conjugative transfer of excised SCCmec. SCCmec was captured on pGO400, a mupirocin-resistant derivative of the pGO1/pSK41 staphylococcal conjugative plasmid lineage, and pGO400::SCCmec (pRM27) was transferred by filter-mating into both homologous and heterologous S. aureus recipients representing a range of clonal complexes as well as S. epidermidis. The DNA sequence of pRM27 showed that SCCmec had been transferred in its entirety and that its capture had occurred by recombination between IS257/431 elements present on all SCCmec types and pGO1/pSK41 conjugative plasmids. The captured SCCmec excised from the plasmid and inserted site-specifically into the chromosomal att site of both an isogenic S. aureus and a S. epidermidis recipient. These studies describe a means by which methicillin resistance can be environmentally disseminated and a novel mechanism, IS-mediated recombination, for the capture and conjugative transfer of genomic islands. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus haemolyticus type strain SGAir0252.

Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a coagulase-negative staphylococcal species that is part of the skin microbiome and an opportunistic human pathogen. The strain SGAir0252 was isolated from tropical air samples collected in Singapore, and its complete genome comprises one chromosome of 2.63?Mb and one plasmid of 41.6?kb. Copyright © 2018 Premkrishnan et al.


July 7, 2019  |  

Draft genome sequence of lytic bacteriophage SA7 infecting Staphylococcus aureus isolates

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive and a round-shaped bacterium of Firmicutes phylum, and is a common cause of skin infections, respiratory infections, and food poisoning. Bacteriophages infecting S. aureus can be an effective treatment for S. aureus infections. Here, the draft genomic sequence is announced for a lytic bacteriophage SA7 infecting S. aureus isolates. The bacteriophage SA7 was isolated from a sewage water sample near a livestock farm in Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea. SA7 has a genome of 34,730 bp and 34.1% G + C content. The genome has 53 protein-coding genes, 23 of which have predicted functions from BLASTp analysis, leaving the others conserved proteins with unknown function.


July 7, 2019  |  

First description of novel arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACMEs) types IV and V harboring a kdp operon in Staphylococcus epidermidis characterized by whole genome sequencing.

The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was first described in the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 and is thought to facilitate survival on skin. To date three distinct ACME types have been characterized comprehensively in S. aureus and/or Staphylococcus epidermidis. Type I harbors the arc and opp3 operons encoding an arginine deaminase pathway and an oligopeptide permease ABC transporter, respectively, type II harbors the arc operon only, and type III harbors the opp3 operon only. To investigate the diversity and detailed genetic organization of ACME, whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 32 ACME-harboring oro-nasal S. epidermidis isolates using MiSeq- and PacBio-based WGS platforms. In nine isolates the ACMEs lacked the opp3 operon, but harbored a complete kdp operon (kdpE/D/A/B/C) located a maximum of 2.8?kb upstream of the arc operon. The kdp operon exhibited 63% DNA sequence identity to the native S. aureus kdp operon. These findings identified a novel, previously undescribed ACME type (designated ACME IV), which could be subtyped (IVa and IVb) based on distinct 5′ flanking direct repeat sequences (DRs). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequences extracted from the WGS data identified the sequence types (STs) of the isolates investigated. Four of the nine ACME IV isolates belonged to ST153, and one to ST17, a single locus variant of ST153. A tenth isolate, identified as ST5, harbored another novel ACME type (designated ACME V) containing the kdp, arc and opp3 operons and flanked by DR_F, and DR_B but lacked any internal DRs. ACME V was colocated with a staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) IV element and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) in a 116.9?kb composite island. The extensive genetic diversity of ACME in S. epidermidis has been further elucidated by WGS, revealing two novel ACME types IV and V for the first time. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Talk with an expert

If you have a question, need to check the status of an order, or are interested in purchasing an instrument, we're here to help.