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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evidence for the evolutionary steps leading to mecA-mediated ß-lactam resistance in staphylococci.

The epidemiologically most important mechanism of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with mecA-an acquired gene encoding an extra penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a) with low affinity to virtually all ß-lactams. The introduction of mecA into the S. aureus chromosome has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pandemics, responsible for high rates of mortality worldwide. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the origin and evolution of mecA. Different mecA homologues have been identified in species belonging to the Staphylococcus sciuri group representing the most primitive staphylococci. In this study we aimed to identify evolutionary steps linking these mecA precursors…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Staphylococcus aureus CC395 harbours a novel composite staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element.

CoNS species are likely reservoirs of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) in Staphylococcus aureus . S . aureus CC395 is unique as it is capable of exchanging DNA with CoNS via bacteriophages, which are also known to mediate transfer of SCC mec .To analyse the structure and putative origin of the SCC mec element in S . aureus CC395.The only MRSA CC395 strain described in the literature, JS395, was subjected to WGS, and its SCC mec element was compared with those found in CoNS species and other S. aureus strains.JS395 was found to carry an unusually large…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequence of Staphylococcus hominis strain J31 isolated from healthy human skin.

We report here the first whole-genome sequence of a skin-associated strain of Staphylococcus hominis determined using the PacBio long-read sequencing platform. S. hominis is a major commensal of the skin microflora. This genome sequence adds to our understanding of this species and will aid studies of gene traffic between staphylococci. Copyright © 2017 Coates-Brown and Horsburgh.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome comparisons of two Taiwanese community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST59 clones support the multi-origin theory of CA-MRSA.

Sequence type (ST) 59 is an epidemic lineage of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Asia. Two ST59 clones are prevalent in Taiwan: the Taiwan clone (TW) causes severe infections, whereas the Asian-Pacific clone (AP) is usually commensal. In this study, we sequenced the genome and transcriptome of the representative strains of these two clones and found their differences to focus on three mobile genetic elements: TW carries SCCmec Type VT, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding prophage FSa2, whereas AP carries SCCmec Type IV and staphylokinase (SAK)-encoding prophage FSa3. The anti-virulent role of SAK was confirmed using murine skin and bloodstream infection…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Post-hypoxia invasion of the fetal brain by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus.

Herein we describe an association between activation of inflammatory pathways following transient hypoxia and the appearance of the multidrug resistant bacteria Staphylococcus simulans in the fetal brain. Reduction of maternal arterial oxygen tension by 50% over 30?min resulted in a subseiuent significant over-expression of genes associated with immune responses 24?h later in the fetal brain. The activated genes were consistent with stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide; an influx of macrophages and appearance of live bacteria were found in these fetal brains. S. simulans was the predominant bacterial species in fetal brain after hypoxia, but was found in placenta of all animals.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of a PVL-negative community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain of sequence type 88 in China.

Sequence type 88 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strain SR434, isolated from an outpatient with skin and soft tissue infection, was subjected to whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, mouse skin infection model and hemolysis analysis to identify its virulence and resistance determinants. MRSA strain SR434 is resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin and fosfomycin. Four plasmids with resistance genes were identified in this strain, including a 20,658bp blaZ-carrying plasmid, a 2473bp ermC-carrying plasmid, a 2622bp fosB7-carrying plasmid (86% identity with plasmid in a ST2590 MRSA strain) and a 4817bp lnuA-carrying plasmid (99% identity with pLNU4 from bovine coagulase-nagetive Staphylococci). This strain…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 5 isolate from the United States.

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) may be the largest MRSA reservoir outside the hospital setting. One concern with LA-MRSA is the acquisition of novel mobile genetic elements by these isolates. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a swine LA-MRSA sequence type 5 isolate from the United States.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 398 isolated from swine in the United States.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizes and causes disease in many animal species. Livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) isolates are represented by isolates of the sequence type 398 (ST398). These isolates are considered to be livestock adapted. This report provides the complete genome sequence of one swine-associated LA-MRSA ST398 isolate from the United States.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence and annotation of the Staphylococcus aureus strain HG001.

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic Gram-positive pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections from minor skin abscesses to life-threatening diseases. Here, we report the draft genome assembly and current annotation of the HG001 strain, a derivative of the RN1 (NCT8325) strain with restored rbsU (a positive activator of SigB). Copyright © 2017 Caldelari et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 chromosome and plasmids, generated by long-read sequencing.

Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 was sequenced using a long-read method to generate a complete genome sequence, including some plasmid sequences. Some differences from the previously generated short-read sequence of this nonpathogenic and non-biofilm-forming strain were noted. The assembly size was 2,570,371 bp with a total G+C% content of 32.08%. Copyright © 2017 MacLea and Trachtenberg.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First detailed genetic characterization of the structural organization of type III arginine catabolic mobile elements harbored by Staphylococcus epidermidis by using whole-genome sequencing.

The type III arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was detected in three Staphylococcus epidermidis oral isolates recovered from separate patients (one healthy, one healthy with dental implants, and one with periodontal disease) based on ACME-arc-operon- and ACME-opp3-operon-directed PCR. These isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing to characterize the precise structural organization of ACME III for the first time, which also revealed that all three isolates were the same sequence type, ST329. Copyright © 2017 McManus et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of Staphylococcus condimenti DSM 11674, a potential starter culture isolated from soy sauce mash.

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are key players in the majority of food fermentation ecosystems, which are commonly found in the production of fermented meat and milk products (Blaiotta et al., 2005; Resch et al., 2008). Strains of CNS have been implicated in exerting desirable effects as components of a fermentation flora, such as color formation, aroma development, and shelf-life enhancement, and may therefore have the potential for future application as starter cultures (Zell et al., 2008). Staphylococcus condimenti is one of the most prominent species and has the potential for use in starter cultures for the production of fermented sausage and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Novel multiresistance cfr plasmids in linezolid-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) from a hospital outbreak: co-location of cfr and optrA in VRE.

Linezolid is often the drug of last resort to treat infections caused by Gram-positive cocci. Linezolid resistance can be mutational (23S rRNA or L-protein) or, less commonly, acquired [predominantly cfr, conferring resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins and streptogramin A compounds (PhLOPSA) or optrA, encoding oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance].To investigate the clonality and genetic basis of linezolid resistance in 13 linezolid-resistant (LZDR) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates recovered during a 2013/14 outbreak in an ICU in an Irish hospital and an LZDR vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolate from an LZDR-MRSE-positive patient.All isolates underwent PhLOPSA susceptibility testing, 23S rRNA sequencing, DNA…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of super biofilm-elaborating Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Japan.

Staphylococcus aureus JP080, previously named TF2758, is a clinical isolate from an atheroma and a super biofilm-elaborating strain whose biofilm elaboration is dependent solely on polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine/polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PNAG/PIA). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain JP080, which consists of one chromosome and one circular plasmid. Copyright © 2017 Yu et al.

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