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June 30, 2017

Complete genome sequence of the cellulose-producing strain Komagataeibacter nataicola RZS01.

Komagataeibacter nataicola is an acetic acid bacterium (AAB) that can produce abundant bacterial cellulose and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid. To globally understand its fermentation characteristics, we present a high-quality complete genome sequence of K. nataicola RZS01. The genome consists of a 3,485,191-bp chromosome and 6 plasmids, which encode 3,514 proteins and bear three cellulose synthase operons. Phylogenetic analysis at the genome level provides convincing evidence of the evolutionary position of K. nataicola with respect to related taxa. Genomic comparisons with other AAB revealed that RZS01 shares 36.1%~75.1% of sequence similarity with other AAB. The sequence data was also…

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May 31, 2017

Quality control of the traditional patent medicine Yimu Wan based on SMRT Sequencing and DNA barcoding.

Substandard traditional patent medicines may lead to global safety-related issues. Protecting consumers from the health risks associated with the integrity and authenticity of herbal preparations is of great concern. Of particular concern is quality control for traditional patent medicines. Here, we establish an effective approach for verifying the biological composition of traditional patent medicines based on single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and DNA barcoding. Yimu Wan (YMW), a classical herbal prescription recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, was chosen to test the method. Two reference YMW samples were used to establish a standard method for analysis, which was then applied to three…

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May 18, 2017

Genomic and phenotypic analyses of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans PRS08-11306 reveal a turnerbactin biosynthesis gene cluster that contributes to nitrogen fixation.

Plant-microbe interactions can provide agronomic benefits, such as enhancing nutrient uptake and providing fixed nitrogen. The Pseudomonas psychrotolerans strain PRS08-11306 was isolated from rice seeds and can enhance plant growth. Here, we analyzed the P. psychrotolerans genome, which is ~5Mb, with 4389 coding sequences, 77 tRNAs, and 7 rRNAs. Genome analysis identified a cluster of turnerbactin biosynthetic genes, which are responsible for the production of a catecholate siderophore and contribute to nitrogen fixation for the host. Analysis of the transcription factor mutant ?rpoS, which does not express this gene cluster, confirmed the relationship between the gene cluster and siderophore production.…

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April 18, 2017

Genome sequence of Plasmopara viticola and insight into the pathogenic mechanism.

Plasmopara viticola causes downy mildew disease of grapevine which is one of the most devastating diseases of viticulture worldwide. Here we report a 101.3?Mb whole genome sequence of P. viticola isolate 'JL-7-2' obtained by a combination of Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. The P. viticola genome contains 17,014 putative protein-coding genes and has ~26% repetitive sequences. A total of 1,301 putative secreted proteins, including 100 putative RXLR effectors and 90 CRN effectors were identified in this genome. In the secretome, 261 potential pathogenicity genes and 95 carbohydrate-active enzymes were predicted. Transcriptional analysis revealed that most of the RXLR effectors, pathogenicity…

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March 23, 2017

Complete genome sequence and comparative genomics of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.

The probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) is known to be effective against many gastrointestinal disorders and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. To understand molecular basis of probiotic-properties ascribed to Sb we determined the complete genomes of two strains of Sb i.e. Biocodex and unique28 and the draft genomes for three other Sb strains that are marketed as probiotics in India. We compared these genomes with 145 strains of S. cerevisiae (Sc) to understand genome-level similarities and differences between these yeasts. A distinctive feature of Sb from other Sc is absence of Ty elements Ty1, Ty3, Ty4 and associated LTR. However, we could identify…

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March 22, 2017

A spontaneous mutation in kdsD, a biosynthesis gene for 3 Deoxy-D-manno-Octulosonic Acid, occurred in a ciprofloxacin resistant strain of Francisella tularensis and caused a high level of attenuation in murine models of tularemia.

Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the causative agent of tularemia and able to infect many mammalian species, including humans. Because of its ability to cause a lethal infection, low infectious dose, and aerosolizable nature, F. tularensis subspecies tularensis is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Due to its in vitro efficacy, ciprofloxacin is one of the antibiotics recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis of tularemia. In order to identify therapeutics that will be efficacious against infections caused by drug resistant select-agents and to better understand the threat, we sought to characterize an existing ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) mutant in the…

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February 25, 2017

Genetic and genomic tools for Cannabis sativa

The Cannabis industry is currently one of the fastest growing industries in the United States. Given the changing legal status of the plant, and the rapidly advancing research, updated information on the advancement of Cannabis genomics is needed. This versatile plant is used as medicine and for food, fiber, and bioremediation. Insights from modern, high-throughput genomic technology are revolutionizing our understanding of the plant and are providing new tools to further improve our knowledge and utilization of this unique species. This review quantifies and evaluates the currently available genomic resources for Cannabis research, including six whole-genome assemblies, two transcriptomes, and…

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January 17, 2017

Comparative genomics reveals the diversity of restriction-modification systems and DNA methylation sites in Listeria monocytogenes.

Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that is found in a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural environments. Genome sequencing technologies are rapidly becoming a powerful tool in facilitating our understanding of how genotype, classification phenotypes, and virulence phenotypes interact to predict the health risks of individual bacterial isolates. Currently, 57 closed L. monocytogenes genomes are publicly available, representing three of the four phylogenetic lineages, and they suggest that L. monocytogenes has high genomic synteny. This study contributes an additional 15 closed L. monocytogenes genomes that were used to determine the associations between the genome and methylome with host invasion…

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September 1, 2016

Representing genetic variation with synthetic DNA standards.

The identification of genetic variation with next-generation sequencing is confounded by the complexity of the human genome sequence and by biases that arise during library preparation, sequencing and analysis. We have developed a set of synthetic DNA standards, termed 'sequins', that emulate human genetic features and constitute qualitative and quantitative spike-in controls for genome sequencing. Sequencing reads derived from sequins align exclusively to an artificial in silico reference chromosome, rather than the human reference genome, which allows them them to be partitioned for parallel analysis. Here we use this approach to represent common and clinically relevant genetic variation, ranging from…

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August 30, 2016

The complete genome sequence of the nicotine-degrading bacterium Shinella sp. HZN7.

Nicotine is a natural alkaloid that is very toxic to humans. To eliminate the harmful effects of nicotine in the environment, biological methods employing microbes to degrade nicotine are required (Brandsch, 2006; Liu et al., 2015). Shinella sp. HZN7 can degrade nicotine efficiently via the variant of a pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (VPP; Ma et al., 2013; Qiu et al., 2014, 2015). The main intermediates in this pathway include 6-hydroxy-nicotine, 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine, 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine, 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine, and 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. This strain is the first nicotine-degrading bacterium to be isolated from the genus Shinella.

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August 11, 2016

Understanding the pathogenicity of Burkholderia contaminans, an emerging pathogen in cystic fibrosis.

Several bacterial species from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are feared opportunistic pathogens that lead to debilitating lung infections with a high risk of developing fatal septicemia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, the pathogenic potential of other Bcc species is yet unknown. To elucidate clinical relevance of Burkholderia contaminans, a species frequently isolated from CF respiratory samples in Ibero-American countries, we aimed to identify its key virulence factors possibly linked with an unfavorable clinical outcome. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of two isolates of B. contaminans ST872 from sputum and blood culture of a female CF patient in…

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July 14, 2016

Microsatellite length scoring by Single Molecule Real Time Sequencing – Effects of sequence structure and PCR regime.

Microsatellites are DNA sequences consisting of repeated, short (1-6 bp) sequence motifs that are highly mutable by enzymatic slippage during replication. Due to their high intrinsic variability, microsatellites have important applications in population genetics, forensics, genome mapping, as well as cancer diagnostics and prognosis. The current analytical standard for microsatellites is based on length scoring by high precision electrophoresis, but due to increasing efficiency next-generation sequencing techniques may provide a viable alternative. Here, we evaluated single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing, implemented in the PacBio series of sequencing apparatuses, as a means of microsatellite length scoring. To this end we…

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July 1, 2013

A benchmark study on error assessment and quality control of CCS reads derived from the PacBio RS.

PacBio RS, a newly emerging third-generation DNA sequencing platform, is based on a real-time, single-molecule, nano-nitch sequencing technology that can generate very long reads (up to 20-kb) in contrast to the shorter reads produced by the first and second generation sequencing technologies. As a new platform, it is important to assess the sequencing error rate, as well as the quality control (QC) parameters associated with the PacBio sequence data. In this study, a mixture of 10 prior known, closely related DNA amplicons were sequenced using the PacBio RS sequencing platform. After aligning Circular Consensus Sequence (CCS) reads derived from the…

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February 1, 2013

StatsDB: platform-agnostic storage and understanding of next generation sequencing run metrics.

Modern sequencing platforms generate enormous quantities of data in ever-decreasing amounts of time. Additionally, techniques such as multiplex sequencing allow one run to contain hundreds of different samples. With such data comes a significant challenge to understand its quality and to understand how the quality and yield are changing across instruments and over time. As well as the desire to understand historical data, sequencing centres often have a duty to provide clear summaries of individual run performance to collaborators or customers. We present StatsDB, an open-source software package for storage and analysis of next generation sequencing run metrics. The system…

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