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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome-guided design of a defined mouse microbiota that confers colonization resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

Protection against enteric infections, also termed colonization resistance, results from mutualistic interactions of the host and its indigenous microbes. The gut microbiota of humans and mice is highly diverse and it is therefore challenging to assign specific properties to its individual members. Here, we have used a collection of murine bacterial strains and a modular design approach to create a minimal bacterial community that, once established in germ-free mice, provided colonization resistance against the human enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm). Initially, a community of 12 strains, termed Oligo-Mouse-Microbiota (Oligo-MM(12)), representing members of the major bacterial phyla in…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Efficient, cost-effective, high-throughput, Multilocus Sequencing Typing (MLST) method, NGMLST, and the analytical software program MLSTEZ.

Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has become the preferred method for genotyping many biological species. It can be used to identify major phylogenetic clades, molecular groups, or subpopulations of a species, as well as individual strains or clones. However, conventional MLST is costly and time consuming, which limits its power for genotyping large numbers of samples. Here, we describe a new MLST method that uses next-generation sequencing, a multiplexing protocol, and appropriate analytical software to provide accurate, rapid, and economical MLST genotyping of 96 or more isolates in a single assay.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of tet(Y)-carrying LowGC plasmids exogenously captured from cow manure at a conventional dairy farm.

Manure from dairy farms has been shown to contain diverse tetracycline resistance genes that are transferable to soil. Here, we focus on conjugative plasmids that may spread tetracycline resistance at a conventional dairy farm. We performed exogenous plasmid isolation from cattle feces using chlortetracycline for transconjugant selection. The transconjugants obtained harbored LowGC-type plasmids and tet(Y). A representative plasmid (pFK2-7) was fully sequenced and this was compared with previously described LowGC plasmids from piggery manure-treated soil and a GenBank record from Acinetobacter nosocomialis that we also identified as a LowGC plasmid. The pFK2-7 plasmid had the conservative backbone typical of LowGC…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genomic insights into a sustained national outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

In 2014, a sustained outbreak of yersiniosis due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis occurred across all major cities in New Zealand (NZ), with a total of 220 laboratory-confirmed cases, representing one of the largest ever reported outbreaks of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing of outbreak-associated isolates to produce the largest population analysis to date of Y. pseudotuberculosis, giving us unprecedented capacity to understand the emergence and evolution of the outbreak clone. Multivariate analysis incorporating our genomic and clinical epidemiological data strongly suggested a single point-source contamination of the food chain, with subsequent nationwide distribution of contaminated produce. We additionally…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Clonal dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequence type 235 isolates carrying blaIMP-6 and emergence of blaGES-24 and blaIMP-10 on novel genomic islands PAGI-15 and -16 in South Korea.

A total of 431 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates were collected from 29 general hospitals in South Korea in 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk diffusion method, and MICs of carbapenems were determined by the agar dilution method. Carbapenemase genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced, and the structures of class 1 integrons surrounding the carbapenemase gene cassettes were analyzed by PCR mapping. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed for strain typing. Whole-genome sequencing was carried out to analyze P. aeruginosa genomic islands (PAGIs) carrying the blaIMP-6, blaIMP-10, and blaGES-24 genes. The rates of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of human pathogen Kosakonia cowanii type strain 888-76T.

Kosakonia cowanii type strain 888-76T is a human pathogen which was originally isolated from blood as NIH group 42. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of K. cowanii 888-76T. 888-76T has 1 chromosome and 2 plasmids with a total genome size of 4,857,567bp and C+G 56.15%. This genome sequence will not only help us to understand the virulence features of K. cowanii 888-76T but also provide us the useful information for the study of evolution of Kosakonia genus. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

FDA-CDC antimicrobial resistance isolate bank: A publicly-available resource to support research, development and regulatory requirements.

The FDA-CDC Antimicrobial Resistance Isolate Bank was created in July 2015 as a publicly available resource to combat antimicrobial resistance. It is a curated repository of bacterial isolates with an assortment of clinically-important resistance mechanisms that have been phenotypically and genotypically characterized. In the first two years of operation, the Bank offered 14 panels comprising 496 unique isolates and had filled 486 orders from 394 institutions throughout the United States. New panels are being added. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genomic analysis of multidrug-resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa Guangzhou-Pae617, the host of megaplasmid pBM413.

We previously described the novel qnrVC6 and blaIMP-45carrying megaplasmid pBM413. This study aimed to investigate the complete genome of multidrug-resistance P. aeruginosa Guangzhou-Pae617, a clinical isolate from the sputum of a patient who was suffering from respiratory disease in Guangzhou, China.The genome was sequenced using Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers and assembled de novo using HGAP. The genome was automatically and manually annotated.The genome of P. aeruginosa Guangzhou-Pae617 is 6,430,493 bp containing 5881 predicted genes with an average G + C content of 66.43%. The genome showed high similarity to two new sequenced P. aeruginosa strains isolated from New…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Assembly, annotation, and comparative genomics in PATRIC, the All Bacterial Bioinformatics Resource Center.

In the “big data” era, research biologists are faced with analyzing new types that usually require some level of computational expertise. A number of programs and pipelines exist, but acquiring the expertise to run them, and then understanding the output can be a challenge.The Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, www.patricbrc.org ) has created an end-to-end analysis platform that allows researchers to take their raw reads, assemble a genome, annotate it, and then use a suite of user-friendly tools to compare it to any public data that is available in the repository. With close to 113,000 bacterial and more than 1000…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of four toxigenic Clostridium difficile clinical isolates from patients of the lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA.

Complete genome sequences of four toxigenicClostridium difficileisolates from patients in the lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA, were achieved. These isolates represent four common sequence types (ST1, ST2, ST8, and ST42) belonging to two distinct phylogenetic clades. All isolates have a 4.0- to 4.2-Mb circular chromosome, and one carries a phage. Copyright © 2018 Yin et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Completed genome sequences of strains from 36 serotypes of Salmonella.

We report here the completed closed genome sequences of strains representing 36 serotypes of Salmonella. These genome sequences will provide useful references for understanding the genetic variation between serotypes, particularly as references for mapping of raw reads or to create assemblies of higher quality, as well as to aid in studies of comparative genomics of Salmonella.© Crown copyright 2018.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequencing of Acinetobacter sp. strain LoGeW2-3, isolated from the pellet of a white stork, reveals a novel class D beta-lactamase gene.

Whole-genome sequencing ofAcinetobactersp. strain LoGeW2-3, isolated from the pellet of a white stork (Ciconia ciconia), reveals the presence of a plasmid of 179,399 bp encoding a CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated genes) system of the I-F type, and the chromosomally encoded novel class D beta-lactamase OXA-568. Copyright © 2018 Blaschke et al.

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