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May 1, 2019

Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison

To better understand the subspecies origin of antibody genes in classical inbred mouse strains, the IGH gene loci of four wild-derived mouse strains were explored by analysis of VDJ gene rearrangements. A total of 341 unique IGHV gene sequences were inferred in the wild-derived strains, including 247 sequences that have not previously been reported. The genes of the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) strain were also documented, and all but one of the 84 inferred NOD IGHV genes have previously been observed in C57BL/6 mice. This is surprising because the Swiss mouse-derived NOD strain and the C57BL/6 strain have no known shared…

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April 1, 2019

Extended haplotype phasing of de novo genome assemblies with FALCON-Phase

Haplotype-resolved genome assemblies are important for understanding how combinations of variants impact phenotypes. These assemblies can be created in various ways, such as use of tissues that contain single-haplotype (haploid) genomes, or by co-sequencing of parental genomes, but these approaches can be impractical in many situations. We present FALCON-Phase, which integrates long-read sequencing data and ultra-long-range Hi-C chromatin interaction data of a diploid individual to create high-quality, phased diploid genome assemblies. The method was evaluated by application to three datasets, including human, cattle, and zebra finch, for which high-quality, fully haplotype resolved assemblies were available for benchmarking. Phasing algorithm accuracy…

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February 1, 2019

CAMISIM: simulating metagenomes and microbial communities.

Shotgun metagenome data sets of microbial communities are highly diverse, not only due to the natural variation of the underlying biological systems, but also due to differences in laboratory protocols, replicate numbers, and sequencing technologies. Accordingly, to effectively assess the performance of metagenomic analysis software, a wide range of benchmark data sets are required.We describe the CAMISIM microbial community and metagenome simulator. The software can model different microbial abundance profiles, multi-sample time series, and differential abundance studies, includes real and simulated strain-level diversity, and generates second- and third-generation sequencing data from taxonomic profiles or de novo. Gold standards are created…

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February 1, 2019

Full-length mRNA sequencing reveals principles of poly(A) tail length control

Although mRNAs are key molecules for understanding life, there exists no method to determine the full-length sequence of endogenous mRNAs including their poly(A) tails. Moreover, although poly(A) tails can be modified in functionally important ways, there also exists no method to accurately sequence them. Here, we present FLAM-seq, a rapid and simple method for high-quality sequencing of entire mRNAs. We report a cDNA library preparation method coupled to single-molecule sequencing to perform FLAM-seq. Using human cell lines, brain organoids, and C. elegans we show that FLAM-seq delivers high-quality full-length mRNA sequences for thousands of different genes per sample. We find…

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January 18, 2019

The landscape of SNCA transcripts across synucleinopathies: New insights from long reads sequencing analysis

Dysregulation of alpha-synuclein expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies, in particular, Parkinsontextquoterights Disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Previous studies have shown that the alternatively spliced isoforms of the SNCA gene are differentially expressed in different parts of the brain for PD and DLB patients. Similarly, SNCA isoforms with skipped exons can have a functional impact on the protein domains. The large intronic region of the SNCA gene was also shown to harbor structural variants that affect transcriptional levels. Here we apply the first study of using long read sequencing with targeted capture of both…

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January 1, 2019

Reconstruction of the genomes of drug-resistant pathogens for outbreak investigation through metagenomic sequencing

Culture-independent methods that target genome fragments have shown promise in identifying certain pathogens, but the holy grail of comprehensive pathogen genome detection from microbiologically complex samples for subsequent forensic analyses remains a challenge. In the context of an investigation of a nosocomial outbreak, we used shotgun metagenomic sequencing of a human fecal sample and a neural network algorithm based on tetranucleotide frequency profiling to reconstruct microbial genomes and tested the same approach using rectal swabs from a second patient. The approach rapidly and readily detected the genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae in the patient fecal specimen and…

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January 1, 2019

SMRT long reads and Direct Label and Stain optical maps allow the generation of a high-quality genome assembly for the European barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica).

The barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is a migratory bird that has been the focus of a large number of ecological, behavioral, and genetic studies. To facilitate further population genetics and genomic studies, we present a reference genome assembly for the European subspecies (H. r. rustica).As part of the Genome10K effort on generating high-quality vertebrate genomes (Vertebrate Genomes Project), we have assembled a highly contiguous genome assembly using single molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing and several Bionano optical map technologies. We compared and integrated optical maps derived from both the Nick, Label, Repair, and Stain technology and from the Direct Label…

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January 1, 2019

Genome structure and evolution of Antirrhinum majus L.

Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.), a member of the Plantaginaceae family, is an important model for plant genetics and molecular studies on plant growth and development, transposon biology and self-incompatibility. Here we report a near-complete genome assembly of A. majus cultivar JI7 (A. majus cv.JI7) comprising 510?Megabases (Mb) of genomic sequence and containing 37,714 annotated protein-coding genes. Scaffolds covering 97.12% of the assembled genome were anchored on eight chromosomes. Comparative and evolutionary analyses revealed that a whole-genome duplication event occurred in the Plantaginaceae around 46-49 million years ago (Ma). We also uncovered the genetic architectures associated with complex traits such as…

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January 1, 2019

The replication-competent HIV-1 latent reservoir is primarily established near the time of iherapy Initiation

Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective at suppressing HIV-1 replication, the virus persists as a latent reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells during therapy. Little is known about the dynamics of reservoir formation, and this reservoir forms even when ART is initiated early after infection. The reservoir of individuals who initiate therapy in chronic infection is generally larger and genetically more diverse than that of individuals who initiate in acute infection, suggesting the reservoir is formed continuously throughout untreated infection. To determine when viruses enter the latent reservoir, we compared sequences of replication-competent viruses from resting CD4+ T cells…

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January 1, 2019

BjuWRR1, a CC-NB-LRR gene identified in Brassica juncea, confers resistance to white rust caused by Albugo candida

White rust caused by oomycete pathogen Albugo candida is a significant disease of crucifer crops including Brassica juncea (mustard), a major oilseed crop of the Indian subcontinent. Earlier a resistance-conferring locus named AcB1-A5.1 was mapped in an east European gene pool line of B. juncea - Donskaja-IV. This line was tested along with some other lines of B. juncea (AABB), B. rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB) for resistance to six isolates of A. candida collected from different mustard growing regions of India. Donskaja-IV was found to be completely resistant to all the tested isolates. Sequencing of a BAC spanning…

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January 1, 2019

The genomes of polyextremophilic Cyanidiales contain 1% horizontally transferred genes with diverse adaptive functions

The role and extent of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotes are hotly disputed topics that impact our understanding regarding the origin of metabolic processes and the role of organelles in cellular evolution. We addressed this issue by analyzing 10 novel Cyanidiales genomes and determined that 1% of their gene inventory is HGT-derived. Numerous HGT candidates originated from polyextremophilic prokaryotes that live in similar habitats as the Cyanidiales and encodes functions related to polyextremophily. HGT candidates differ from native genes in GC-content, number of splice sites, and gene expression. HGT candidates are more prone to loss, which may explain the…

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November 1, 2018

Population genome sequencing of the scab fungal species Venturia inaequalis, Venturia pirina, Venturia aucupariae and Venturia asperata.

The Venturia genus comprises fungal species that are pathogens on Rosaceae host plants, including V. inaequalis and V. asperata on apple, V. aucupariae on sorbus and V. pirina on pear. Although the genetic structure of V. inaequalis populations has been investigated in detail, genomic features underlying these subdivisions remain poorly understood. Here, we report whole genome sequencing of 87 Venturia strains that represent each species and each population within V. inaequalis. We present a PacBio genome assembly for the V. inaequalis EU-B04 reference isolate. The size of selected genomes was determined by flow cytometry, and varied from 45 to 93…

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November 1, 2018

De novo clustering of long-read transcriptome data using a greedy, quality-value based algorithm

Long-read sequencing of transcripts with PacBio Iso-Seq and Oxford Nanopore Technologies has proven to be central to the study of complex isoform landscapes in many organisms. However, current de novo transcript reconstruction algorithms from long-read data are limited, leaving the potential of these technologies unfulfilled. A common bottleneck is the dearth of scalable and accurate algorithms for clustering long reads according to their gene family of origin. To address this challenge, we develop isONclust, a clustering algorithm that is greedy (in order to scale) and makes use of quality values (in order to handle variable error rates). We test isONclust…

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November 1, 2018

Reconstitution of eukaryotic chromosomes and manipulation of DNA N6-methyladenine alters chromatin and gene expression

DNA N6-adenine methylation (6mA) has recently been reported in diverse eukaryotes, spanning unicellular organisms to metazoans. Yet the functional significance of 6mA remains elusive due to its low abundance, difficulty of manipulation within native DNA, and lack of understanding of eukaryotic 6mA writers. Here, we report a novel DNA 6mA methyltransferase in ciliates, termed MTA1. The enzyme contains an MT-A70 domain but is phylogenetically distinct from all known RNA and DNA methyltransferases. Disruption of MTA1 in vivo leads to the genome-wide loss of 6mA in asexually growing cells and abolishment of the consensus ApT dimethylated motif. Genes exhibit subtle changes…

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November 1, 2018

Strengths and potential pitfalls of hay-transfer for ecological restoration revealed by RAD-seq analysis in two floodplain Arabis species

Achieving high intraspecific genetic diversity is a critical goal in ecological restoration as it increases the adaptive potential and long-term resilience of populations. Thus, we investigated genetic diversity within and between pristine sites in a fossil flood-plain and compared it to sites restored by hay-transfer between 1997 and 2014. RAD-seq genotyping revealed that the stenoecious flood-plain species Arabis nemorensis is co-occurring in pristine and restored sites with its relative Arabis sagittata, which has a documented preference for dry calcareous grasslands but has not been reported in floodplain meadows. We show that hay-transfer maintains genetic diversity for both species. In addition,…

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