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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Adaptation of genetically monomorphic bacteria: evolution of copper resistance through multiple horizontal gene transfers of complex and versatile mobile genetic elements.

Copper-based antimicrobial compounds are widely used to control plant bacterial pathogens. Pathogens have adapted in response to this selective pressure. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, a major citrus pathogen causing Asiatic citrus canker, was first reported to carry plasmid-encoded copper resistance in Argentina. This phenotype was conferred by the copLAB gene system. The emergence of resistant strains has since been reported in Réunion and Martinique. Using microsatellite-based genotyping and copLAB PCR, we demonstrated that the genetic structure of the copper-resistant strains from these three regions was made up of two distant clusters and varied for the detection of copLAB amplicons. In…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Xanthomonas adaptation to common bean is associated with horizontal transfers of genes encoding TAL effectors.

Common bacterial blight is a devastating bacterial disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. fuscans and Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. phaseoli. These phylogenetically distant strains are able to cause similar symptoms on common bean, suggesting that they have acquired common genetic determinants of adaptation to common bean. Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors are bacterial type III effectors that are able to induce the expression of host genes to promote infection or resistance. Their capacity to bind to a specific host DNA sequence suggests that they are potential candidates for host adaption.To study the diversity of tal genes from…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of oqxAB in Escherichia coli isolates from animals, retail meat, and human patients in Guangzhou, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic elements of oqxAB among Escherichia coli isolates from animals, retail meat, and humans (patients with infection or colonization) in Guangzhou, China. A total of 1,354 E. coli isolates were screened for oqxAB by PCR. Fifty oqxAB-positive isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), S1-PFGE, genetic environment analysis, plasmid replicon typing, and plasmid sequencing. oqxAB was detected in 172 (33.79%), 60 (17.34%), and 90 (18.07%) E. coli isolates from animal, food, and human, respectively. High clonal diversity was observed among oqxAB-positive isolates. In…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization of ESBL disseminating plasmids.

Bacteria producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute a globally increasing problem that contributes to treatment complications and elevated death rates. The extremely successful dissemination by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae during the latest decades is a result of the combination of mobilization, evolution and horizontal spread of ß-lactamase genes on plasmids. In parallel, spread of these plasmids to particularly well-adapted bacterial clones (outbreak clones) has expanded. In this review we describe ESBL-producing bacteria and the genetic mechanisms for dissemination of ESBL resistance. We describe available methodology for studying plasmids and the importance of including plasmids in epidemiological typing as natural parts of the organisms.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete Sequences and Characterization of Two Novel Plasmids Carrying aac(6′)-Ib-cr and qnrS Gene in Shigella flexneri.

The complete sequences of two previously reported plasmids carrying plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes from Shigella flexneri in China have not been available. The present study using the p5-C3 assembly method revealed that (1) the plasmid pSF07201 with aac(6′)-Ib-cr had 75,335?bp with antibiotic resistance genes CTX-M-3, TEM-1, and FosA3; (2) seven fragments of pSF07201 had more than 99% homology with the seven corresponding plasmids; (3) the other plasmid pSF07202 with qnrS had 47,669?bp with antibiotic resistance gene TEM-1 and 99.95% homology with a segment of pKF362122, which has the qnrS gene from location 162,490 to 163,146. A conjugation and electrotransformation experiment…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Integrating mass spectrometry and genomics for cyanobacterial metabolite discovery.

Filamentous marine cyanobacteria produce bioactive natural products with both potential therapeutic value and capacity to be harmful to human health. Genome sequencing has revealed that cyanobacteria have the capacity to produce many more secondary metabolites than have been characterized. The biosynthetic pathways that encode cyanobacterial natural products are mostly uncharacterized, and lack of cyanobacterial genetic tools has largely prevented their heterologous expression. Hence, a combination of cutting edge and traditional techniques has been required to elucidate their secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. Here, we review the discovery and refined biochemical understanding of the olefin synthase and fatty acid ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylating…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii XH386 (ST208), a multi-drug resistant bacteria isolated from pediatric hospital in China.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an important bacterium that emerged as a significant nosocomial pathogen worldwide. The rise of A. baumannii was due to its multi-drug resistance (MDR), while it was difficult to treat multi-drug resistant A. baumannii with antibiotics, especially in pediatric patients for the therapeutic options with antibiotics were quite limited in pediatric patients. A. baumannii ST208 was identified as predominant sequence type of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii in the United States and China. As we knew, there was no complete genome sequence reproted for A. baumannii ST208, although several whole genome shotgun sequences had been reported. Here, we sequenced…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Deciphering the streamlined genome of Streptomyces xiamenensis 318 as the producer of the anti-fibrotic drug candidate xiamenmycin.

Streptomyces xiamenensis 318, a moderate halophile isolated from a mangrove sediment, produces the anti-fibrotic compound xiamenmycin. The whole genome sequence of strain 318 was obtained through long-read single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, high-throughput Illumina HiSeq and 454 pyrosequencing technologies. The assembled genome comprises a linear chromosome as a single contig of 5,961,401-bp, which is considerably smaller than other reported complete genomes of the genus Streptomyces. Based on the antiSMASH pipeline, a total of 21?gene clusters were predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism. The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of xiamenmycin resides in a strain-specific 61,387-bp genomic island belonging to…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Streptomyces thermoautotrophicus does not fix nitrogen.

Streptomyces thermoautotrophicus UBT1 has been described as a moderately thermophilic chemolithoautotroph with a novel nitrogenase enzyme that is oxygen-insensitive. We have cultured the UBT1 strain, and have isolated two new strains (H1 and P1-2) of very similar phenotypic and genetic characters. These strains show minimal growth on ammonium-free media, and fail to incorporate isotopically labeled N2 gas into biomass in multiple independent assays. The sdn genes previously published as the putative nitrogenase of S. thermoautotrophicus have little similarity to anything found in draft genome sequences, published here, for strains H1 and UBT1, but share >99% nucleotide identity with genes from…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae KP617, coproducing OXA-232 and NDM-1 carbapenemases, isolated in South Korea.

The prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae coproducing carbapenemase metallo-ß-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) and OXA-48 has been increasing globally since 2013. The complete genome of KP617 was sequenced and assembled into a circular chromosome and two plasmids. This sequence provides the genetic background for understanding the evolution of carbapenemase genes in K. pneumoniae KP617.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence and genomic characterization of Microcystis panniformis FACHB 1757 by third-generation sequencing.

The cyanobacterial genus Microcystis is well known as the main group that forms harmful blooms in water. A strain of Microcystis, M. panniformis FACHB1757, was isolated from Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in August 2011. The whole genome was sequenced using PacBio RS II sequencer with 48-fold coverage. The complete genome sequence with no gaps contained a 5,686,839 bp chromosome and a 38,683 bp plasmid, which coded for 6,519 and 49 proteins, respectively. Comparison with strains of M. aeruginosa and some other water bloom-forming cyanobacterial species revealed large-scale structure rearrangement and length variation at the genome level along with 36…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence and comparative genomics of a novel Myxobacterium Myxococcus hansupus.

Myxobacteria, a group of Gram-negative aerobes, belong to the class d-proteobacteria and order Myxococcales. Unlike anaerobic d-proteobacteria, they exhibit several unusual physiogenomic properties like gliding motility, desiccation-resistant myxospores and large genomes with high coding density. Here we report a 9.5 Mbp complete genome of Myxococcus hansupus that encodes 7,753 proteins. Phylogenomic and genome-genome distance based analysis suggest that Myxococcus hansupus is a novel member of the genus Myxococcus. Comparative genome analysis with other members of the genus Myxococcus was performed to explore their genome diversity. The variation in number of unique proteins observed across different species is suggestive of diversity…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The genome analysis of Candidatus Burkholderia crenata reveals that secondary metabolism may be a key function of the Ardisia crenata leaf nodule symbiosis.

A majority of Ardisia species harbour Burkholderia sp. bacteria within specialized leaf nodules. The bacteria are transmitted hereditarily and have not yet been cultured outside of their host. Because the plants cannot develop beyond the seedling stage without their symbionts, the symbiosis is considered obligatory. We sequenced for the first time the genome of Candidatus Burkholderia crenata (Ca. B. crenata), the leaf nodule symbiont of Ardisia crenata. The genome of Ca. B. crenata is the smallest Burkholderia genome to date. It contains a large amount of insertion sequences and pseudogenes and displays features consistent with reductive genome evolution. The genome…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Evidence of horizontal gene transfer between obligate leaf nodule symbionts.

Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia establish an obligate symbiosis with plant species of the Rubiaceae and Primulaceae families. The bacteria, housed within the leaves, are transmitted hereditarily and have not yet been cultured. We have sequenced and compared the genomes of eight bacterial leaf nodule symbionts of the Rubiaceae plant family. All of the genomes exhibit features consistent with genome erosion. Genes potentially involved in the biosynthesis of kirkamide, an insecticidal C7N aminocyclitol, are conserved in most Rubiaceae symbionts. However, some have partially lost the kirkamide pathway due to genome erosion and are unable to synthesize the compound. Kirkamide synthesis…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

No evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer in the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini.

Tardigrades are meiofaunal ecdysozoans that are key to understanding the origins of Arthropoda. Many species of Tardigrada can survive extreme conditions through cryptobiosis. In a recent paper [Boothby TC, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(52):15976-15981], the authors concluded that the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini had an unprecedented proportion (17%) of genes originating through functional horizontal gene transfer (fHGT) and speculated that fHGT was likely formative in the evolution of cryptobiosis. We independently sequenced the genome of H. dujardini As expected from whole-organism DNA sampling, our raw data contained reads from nontarget genomes. Filtering using metagenomics approaches generated a…

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