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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Horizontal gene acquisitions, mobile element proliferation, and genome decay in the host-restricted plant pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila.

Modern industrial agriculture depends on high-density cultivation of genetically similar crop plants, creating favorable conditions for the emergence of novel pathogens with increased fitness in managed compared with ecologically intact settings. Here, we present the genome sequence of six strains of the cucurbit bacterial wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila (Enterobacteriaceae) isolated from infected squash plants in New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Michigan. These genomes exhibit a high proportion of recent horizontal gene acquisitions, invasion and remarkable amplification of mobile genetic elements, and pseudogenization of approximately 20% of the coding sequences. These genome attributes indicate that E. tracheiphila recently emerged as a…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type IV secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids.

The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which may disrupt host cell processes. In the genomes of 27 C. fetus strains, three phylogenetically-different T4SS-encoding regions (T4SSs) were identified: one was located in both the chromosome and in extra-chromosomal plasmids; one was located exclusively in the chromosome; and one exclusively in extra-chromosomal plasmids. We observed that C. fetus strains can contain multiple T4SSs and that homologous T4SSs…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomic analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis serosensitive and seroresistant lineages demonstrate their independent evolution.

The bacterial species Moraxella catarrhalishas been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

The Mycobacterium phlei genome: expectations and surprises.

Mycobacterium phlei, a nontuberculosis mycobacterial species, was first described in 1898–1899. We present the complete genome sequence for the M. phlei CCUG21000T type strain and the draft genomes for four additional strains. The genome size for all fiveis 5.3 Mb with 69.4% Guanine-Cytosine content. This is ˜0.35 Mbp smaller than the previously reported M. phlei RIVM draft genome. The size difference is attributed partly to large bacteriophage sequence fragments in the M. phlei RIVM genome. Comparative analysis revealed the following: 1) A CRISPR system similar to Type 1E (cas3) in M. phlei RIVM; 2) genes involved in polyamine metabolism and…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Extensive mobilome-driven genome diversification in mouse gut-associated Bacteroides vulgatus mpk.

Like many other Bacteroides species, Bacteroides vulgatus strain mpk, a mouse fecal isolate which was shown to promote intestinal homeostasis, utilizes a variety of mobile elements for genome evolution. Based on sequences collected by Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing technology, we discuss the challenges of assembling and studying a bacterial genome of high plasticity. Additionally, we conducted comparative genomics comparing this commensal strain with the B. vulgatus type strain ATCC 8482 as well as multiple other Bacteroides and Parabacteroides strains to reveal the most important differences and identify the unique features of B. vulgatus mpk. The genome of B. vulgatus mpk…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete nucleotide sequence of pH11, an IncHI2 plasmid conferring multi-antibiotic resistance and multi-heavy metal resistance genes in a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate.

The complete 284,628bp sequence of pH11, an IncHI2 plasmid, was determined through single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing. Harbored by a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain H11, and isolated in Beijing, this plasmid contains multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including catA2, aac(6′)-Ib, strB, strA, dfrA19, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-12, sul1, qacE delta 1, ereA, arr2, and aac3. The aac(6′)-Ib is carried by a class I integron. Plasmid pH11 also carries several genes associated with resistance to heavy metals, such as tellurium, mercury, cobalt, zinc, nickel, copper, lead and cadmium. This plasmid exhibits numerous characteristics, including HipBA and RelBE toxin-antitoxin systems, two major transfer (Tra) regions closely…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Regulation of genetic flux between bacteria by restriction-modification systems.

Restriction-modification (R-M) systems are often regarded as bacteria’s innate immune systems, protecting cells from infection by mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Their diversification has been recently associated with the emergence of particularly virulent lineages. However, we have previously found more R-M systems in genomes carrying more MGEs. Furthermore, it has been suggested that R-M systems might favor genetic transfer by producing recombinogenic double-stranded DNA ends. To test whether R-M systems favor or disfavor genetic exchanges, we analyzed their frequency with respect to the inferred events of homologous recombination and horizontal gene transfer within 79 bacterial species. Genetic exchanges were more frequent…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Myroides sp.

Bacteria of the genus Myroides (Myroides spp.) are rare opportunistic pathogens. Myroides sp. infections have been reported mainly in China. Myroides sp. is highly resistant to most available antibiotics, but the resistance mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Current strain identification methods based on biochemical traits are unable to identify strains accurately at the species level. While 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing can accurately achieve this, it fails to give information on the status and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, because the 16S rRNA sequence contains no information on resistance genes, resistance islands or enzymes. We hypothesized that obtaining the whole…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of a CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli strain from the H30Rx subclone of sequence type 131 from a patient with recurrent urinary tract infections, closely related to a lethal urosepsis isolate from the patient’s sister.

We report here the complete genome sequence, including five plasmid sequences, of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) strain JJ1887. The strain was isolated in 2007 in the United States from a patient with recurrent cystitis, whose caregiver sister died from urosepsis caused by a nearly identical strain. Copyright © 2016 Johnson et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, two phylogenetically distinct probiotics.

Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

A roadmap for gene system development in Clostridium.

Clostridium species are both heroes and villains. Some cause serious human and animal diseases, those present in the gut microbiota generally contribute to health and wellbeing, while others represent useful industrial chassis for the production of chemicals and fuels. To understand, counter or exploit, there is a fundamental requirement for effective systems that may be used for directed or random genome modifications. We have formulated a simple roadmap whereby the necessary gene systems maybe developed and deployed. At its heart is the use of ‘pseudo-suicide’ vectors and the creation of a pyrE mutant (a uracil auxotroph), initially aided by ClosTron…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Reply to Bemm et al. and Arakawa: Identifying foreign genes in independent Hypsibius dujardini genome assemblies.

Our report (1) describing the discovery of extensive horizontal gene transfer in a tardigrade genome has raised questions from other groups who were sequencing the Hypsibius dujardini genome in parallel or who have done new experiments and analyses since our report (2??–5). Bemm et al. (2) now report filtering our data for likely contaminants, resulting in a new, prefiltered genome assembly. Arakawa (3) has sequenced genomes of starved, washed, individual animals that had been treated with antibiotics for 48 h, and used this genomic sequence and RNA-Seq data to identify likely bona fide tardigrade contigs. Two other reports have contributed…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Horizontal transfer of carbapenemase-encoding plasmids and comparison with hospital epidemiology data.

Carbapenemase-producing organisms have spread worldwide, and infections with these bacteria cause significant morbidity. Horizontal transfer of plasmids that encode carbapenemases plays an important role in the spread of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here we investigate parameters regulating conjugation using an E. coli laboratory strain that lacks plasmids or restriction-enzyme modification systems as a recipient and also using patient isolates as donors and recipients. Because conjugation is tightly regulated, we performed a systematic analysis of the transfer of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC)-encoding plasmids into multiple strains under different environmental conditions to investigate critical variables. We used four blaKPC-plasmids isolated from patient…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

First report of blaIMP-14 on a plasmid harboring multiple drug resistance genes in Escherichia coli ST131.

The blaIMP-14 carbapenem resistance gene has largely previously been observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. As part of global surveillance and sequencing of carbapenem-resistant E. coli, we identified an ST131 strain harboring blaIMP-14 within a class 1 integron, itself nested within a ~54kb multi-drug resistance region on an epidemic IncA/C2 plasmid. The emergence of blaIMP-14 in this context in the ST131 lineage is of potential clinical concern. Copyright © 2016 Stoesser et al.

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